Herbert Clark Hoover, 31st President, was born in West Branch, Iowa, in 1874 and grew up in Oregon. He earned a bachelor’s degree from Stanford University in 1895 as a mining engineer.
He served in government as a public administrator, as a food relief coordinator, and as Secretary of Commerce under presidents Harding and Coolidge before his nomination for the presidency in 1928.
In 1931, Hoover authorized the secretary of the Treasury to change the design on the quarter dollar. To commemorate the 200th anniversary of the birth of George Washington, the "Standing Liberty" design on the front of the coin was replaced by Washington’s profile.
Hoover’s presidency quickly fell under the dark shadows of the Great Depression. Many blamed him for this financial disaster, and he was badly defeated in the election of 1932.
After leaving office, Hoover retired to New York City and wrote articles, books, and answers to as many as 20,000 letters a month. He died there in 1964 at the age of 90.