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Presenting the Amazing Horse

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Summary

Students will demonstrate an understanding of the importance of the horse to Native Americans. Students will identify ways the horse helped Native Americans.

Coin Type(s)

  • Dollar

Coin Program(s)

  • Native American $1 Coin

Objectives

  • Students will demonstrate an understanding of the importance of the horse to Native Americans.
  • Students will identify ways the horse helped Native Americans.

Major Subject Area Connections

  • Language Arts
  • Social Studies

Grades

  • Kindergarten
  • First grade

Class Time

Sessions: Two
Session Length: 20-30 minutes
Total Length: 46-90 minutes

Background Knowledge

Students should have a basic knowledge of:

  • Native Americans
  • Horses

Terms and Concepts

  • Quarter
  • Obverse (front)
  • Reverse (back)
  • Plains Indians
  • Trade
  • Goods
  • Transport

Materials

  • 1 overhead projector or equivalent other classroom technology (optional)
  • 1 overhead transparency of “2012 Native American $1 Coin” page
  • Copies of the following:
    • “Presenting the Amazing Horse” worksheet
    • “Trotting to Transport” worksheet
  • 1 copy of an age-appropriate text that gives information about the importance of the horse to Native American tribes, such as:
    • Plains Indians by Mir Tamim Ansary
    • The Lakota Sioux (A True Book) by Andrew Santella
    • The Horse’s Return to America by Herman J. Viola
  • 1 copy of an age-appropriate text that gives information about transporting goods, such as:
    • How to Make a Cherry Pie and See the U.S.A. by Marjorie Priceman
    • How to Make an Apple Pie and See the World by Marjorie Priceman
    • How Did That Get to My Table? Cereal (Community Connections) by Pam Rosenberg
    • From Grass to Milk (Start to Finish (Lerner Paperback)) by Stacy Taus-Bolstad
  • Markers, pencils, crayons
  • Chart paper

Preparations

  • Make an overhead transparency (or photocopy) of each of the following:
    • “2012 Native American $1 Coin” page
    • “Presenting the Amazing Horse” worksheet
    • “Trotting to Transport” worksheet
  • Make copies of each of the following:
    • “Presenting the Amazing Horse” worksheet (1 per student)
    • “Trotting to Transport” worksheet (1 per student)
  • Locate a text that gives information about the importance of the horse to the Plains Indians (see examples under “Materials”).
  • Locate a text that gives information about transporting goods (see examples under “Materials”).
  • Create a chart labeled “The Importance of the Horse” for Session 1.
  • Gather items (plastic food) for role-play activity.

Worksheets and Files

Lesson plan, worksheet(s), and rubric (if any) at www.usmint.gov/kids/teachers/lessonPlans/pdf/118.pdf.

Session 1

  1. Describe the Native American $1 Coin Program for background information. The program is described at www.usmint.gov/kids/coinNews/nativeAmerican/.
  2. Display the “2012 Native American $1 Coin Reverse” overhead transparency or photocopy. Tell the students that the back of the coin is called the reverse, and “obverse” is another name for the front. With the students, examine the coin design and identify the 2012 theme of “The Spread of the Horse.” Brainstorm with the students why the horse might have been so important to Native Americans. Write their predictions on chart paper. Tell the students they will learn why the horse was important to Native Americans.
  3. Introduce the students to the selected text about the importance of the horse to Native Americans. As a group, preview the text and illustrations to generate observations about what is occurring at different points in the text.
  4. Read the selected text aloud, focusing on the importance of the horse to Native Americans. Attend to any unfamiliar vocabulary. During the reading, record and illustrate information about the importance of the horse on chart paper.
  5. Discuss with the students how life changed for Native American tribes, especially the Plains Indians, after they had horses. Add information to the chart paper. Compare and discuss the new information to the earlier predictions.
  6. Distribute the “Presenting the Amazing Horse!” worksheet. Direct students to draw and write about one of the ways the horse made life easier for the Plains Indians.
  7. Allow sufficient time for students to complete the worksheet.
  8. Collect the worksheets and review them with the class. Display the worksheets in the classroom.

Session 2

  1. Display the “2012 Native American $1 Coin Reverse” transparency. Review the information and charts about the importance of the horse to the Plains Indians from the previous session.
  2. Tell the students that a long time ago, people did not always use money to pay for things they wanted. Many times, people would trade or offer something that was valuable to them for an item that belonged to someone else. Write the word “trade” on chart paper and record the definition.
  3. Describe the trade routes of the Native Americans. Tell the students that before horses, Native Americans walked from one place to another and had to carry anything they wanted to trade. Discuss with the students what it would be like to have a list of items to buy at a store, but no shopping cart to put the items in.
  4. Display the gathered plastic food items. Select a few students to pretend to go shopping at a grocery store. Have one student “buy” only one item, and allow the other students to “buy” as many plastic food items as they think they can carry without using a bag or box to put the items in. Ask the class to predict which students will be able to carry the items home without dropping any of the items. While carrying all of the plastic food items without using a bag, have the student pretend to walk home.
  5. Discuss with the students what it was like to carry one item in their hands and what it was like to try to carry many items without a bag. Lead the students to determine they would not be able to travel very far and would only be able to carry a few items. Explain that this is what it was like for the Plains Indians before they had horses.
  6. Discuss what life was like for the Plains Indians after they acquired horses. Horses enable them to travel farther and faster and also carry bigger and heavier loads. Write the word “transport” on chart paper and record the definition.
  7. Introduce the students to the selected text about transporting goods. As a group, preview the text and illustrations to generate observations about what is occurring at different points in the text. Read the selected text to the class and attend to any unfamiliar vocabulary. Write the word “goods” on chart paper and record the definition.
  8. Review the story sequence, focusing on how goods are transported in the text. Make connections to how the Plains Indians transported goods both before and after the introduction of horses. Add information to the chart for student reference.
  9. Distribute the “Trotting to Transport” worksheet. Have students draw how the Plains Indians transported goods before horses and after horses. Have students write one sentence about the pictures.
  10. Allow appropriate amount of time for students to complete the work.
  11. Share the worksheets with the class.

Differentiated Learning Options

  • Provide pictures and labels about the importance of the horse for the Plains Indians for students to use.
  • Allow students to work with a partner.

Enrichments/Extensions

  • Have students create a display about transporting goods.
  • Have students learn more about the importance of the horse to Native American tribes by visiting the National Museum of the American Indian exhibit “A Song for the Horse Nation: Horses in Native American Cultures” at americanindian.si.edu/exhibitions/horsenation/index.html.

Technology Extensions

Have students create a slide show using a digital drawing program about the importance of the horse to the Plains Indians and post on the school’s Web site.

  • Take anecdotal notes about the students’ participation in class discussions.
  • Evaluate the students’ worksheets for understanding of the lesson objectives.
There are no related resources for this lesson plan.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.K Language
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.K.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Print many upper- and lowercase letters.
    • Use frequently occurring nouns and verbs.
    • Form regular plural nouns orally by adding /s/ or /es/ (e.g., dog, dogs; wish, wishes).
    • Understand and use question words (interrogatives) (e.g., who, what, where, when, why, how).
    • Use the most frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., to, from, in, out, on, off, for, of, by, with).
    • Produce and expand complete sentences in shared language activities.
  • L.K.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Capitalize the first word in a sentence and the pronoun I.
    • Recognize and name end punctuation.
    • Write a letter or letters for most consonant and short-vowel sounds (phonemes).
    • Spell simple words phonetically, drawing on knowledge of sound-letter relationships.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.1 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RI.1.1. Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
  • RI.1.2. Identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.
  • RI.1.3. Describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.1 Language
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.1.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Print all upper- and lowercase letters.
    • Use common, proper, and possessive nouns.
    • Use singular and plural nouns with matching verbs in basic sentences (e.g., He hops; We hop).
    • Use personal, possessive, and indefinite pronouns (e.g., I, me, my; they, them, their, anyone, everything).
    • Use verbs to convey a sense of past, present, and future (e.g., Yesterday I walked home; Today I walk home; Tomorrow I will walk home).
    • Use frequently occurring adjectives.
    • Use frequently occurring conjunctions (e.g., and, but, or, so, because).
    • Use determiners (e.g., articles, demonstratives).
    • Use frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., during, beyond, toward).
    • Produce and expand complete simple and compound declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences in response to prompts.
  • L.1.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Capitalize dates and names of people.
    • Use end punctuation for sentences.
    • Use commas in dates and to separate single words in a series.
    • Use conventional spelling for words with common spelling patterns and for frequently occurring irregular words.
    • Spell untaught words phonetically, drawing on phonemic awareness and spelling conventions.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.1 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RL.1.4. Identify words and phrases in stories or poems that suggest feelings or appeal to the senses.
  • RL.1.5. Explain major differences between books that tell stories and books that give information, drawing on a wide reading of a range of text types.
  • RL.1.6. Identify who is telling the story at various points in a text.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.1 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RL.1.7. Use illustrations and details in a story to describe its characters, setting, or events.
  • RL.1.8. Not applicable to literature.
  • RL.1.9. Compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in stories.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.1 Writing
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Production and Distribution of Writing
Standards:

  • W.1.4. begins in grade 3.
  • W.1.5. With guidance and support from adults, focus on a topic, respond to questions and suggestions from peers, and add details to strengthen writing as needed.
  • W.1.6. With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.1 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RL.1.1. Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
  • RL.1.2. Retell stories, including key details, and demonstrate understanding of their central message or lesson.
  • RL.1.3. Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.1 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
Standards:

  • SL.1.1. Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 1 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
    • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
    • Build on others’ talk in conversations by responding to the comments of others through multiple exchanges.
    • Ask questions to clear up any confusion about the topics and texts under discussion.
  • SL.1.2. Ask and answer questions about key details in a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.
  • SL.1.3. Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to gather additional information or clarify something that is not understood.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.1 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • SL.1.4. Describe people, places, things, and events with relevant details, expressing ideas and feelings clearly.
  • SL.1.5. Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.
  • SL.1.6. Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation. (See grade 1 Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.)

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.1 Writing
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.1.7. Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of “how-to” books on a given topic and use them to write a sequence of instructions).
  • W.1.8. With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
  • W.1.9. begins in grade 4.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.K Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RL.K.4. Ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text.
  • RL.K.5. Recognize common types of texts (e.g., storybooks, poems).
  • RL.K.6. With prompting and support, name the author and illustrator of a story and define the role of each in telling the story.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.K Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RL.K.7. With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the story in which they appear (e.g., what moment in a story an illustration depicts).  
  • RL.K.8. not applicable to literature.
  • RL.K.9. With prompting and support, compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in familiar stories.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.K Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RL.K.1. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
  • RL.K.2. With prompting and support, retell familiar stories, including key details.
  • RL.K.3. With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.K Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
Standards:

  • SL.K.1. Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about kindergarten topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
    • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others and taking turns speaking about the topics and texts under discussion).
    • Continue a conversation through multiple exchanges.
  • SL.K.2. Confirm understanding of a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media by asking and answering questions about key details and requesting clarification if something is not understood.
  • SL.K.3. Ask and answer questions in order to seek help, get information, or clarify something that is not understood.
  • SL.K.4. Describe familiar people, places, things, and events and, with prompting and support, provide additional detail.
  • SL.K.5. Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions as desired to provide additional detail.
  • SL.K.6. Speak audibly and express thoughts, feelings, and ideas clearly.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.K Writing
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Production and Distribution of Writing
Standards:

  • W.K.4. begins in grade 3.
  • W.K.5. With guidance and support from adults, respond to questions and suggestions from peers and add details to strengthen writing as needed.
  • W.K.6. With guidance and support from adults, explore a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.K Writing
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.K.7. Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of books by a favorite author and express opinions about them).
  • W.K.8. With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
  • W.K.9. begins in grade 4.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.K Writing
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Text Types and Purposes
Standards:

  • W.K.1. Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose opinion pieces in which they tell a reader the topic or the name of the book they are writing about and state an opinion or preference about the topic or book (e.g., My favorite book is...).
  • W.K.2. Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic.
  • W.K.3. Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to narrate a single event or several loosely linked events, tell about the events in the order in which they occurred, and provide a reaction to what happened.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.1 Writing
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Text Types and Purposes
Standards:

  • W.1.1. Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or name the book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply a reason for the opinion, and provide some sense of closure.
  • W.1.2. Write informative/explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic, and provide some sense of closure.
  • W.1.3. Write narratives in which they recount two or more appropriately sequenced events, include some details regarding what happened, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide some sense of closure.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.K Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RI.K.4. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text.
  • RI.K.5. Identify the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book.
  • RI.K.6. Name the author and illustrator of a text and define the role of each in presenting the ideas or information in a text.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.K Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RI.K.7. With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the text in which they appear (e.g., what person, place, thing, or idea in the text an illustration depicts).
  • RI.K.8. With prompting and support, identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text.
  • RI.K.9. With prompting and support, identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic (e.g., in illustrations, descriptions, or procedures).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.K Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RI.K.1. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
  • RI.K.2. With prompting and support, identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.
  • RI.K.3. With prompting and support, describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.1 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RI.1.4. Ask and answer questions to help determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases in a text.
  • RI.1.5. Know and use various text features (e.g., headings, tables of contents, glossaries, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text.
  • RI.1.6. Distinguish between information provided by pictures or other illustrations and information provided by the words in a text.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.1 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RI.1.7. Use the illustrations and details in a text to describe its key ideas.
  • RI.1.8. Identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text.
  • RI.1.9. Identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic (e.g., in illustrations, descriptions, or procedures).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Literature
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students read a wide range of literature from many periods in many genres to build an understanding of the many dimensions (e.g., philosophical, ethical, aesthetic) of human experience. 

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Culture and Cultural Diversity
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • assist learners to understand and apply the concept of culture as an integrated whole that governs the functions and interactions of language, literature, arts, traditions, beliefs, values, and behavior patterns
  • enable learners to analyze and explain how groups, societies, and cultures address human needs and concerns
  • guide learners as they predict how experiences may be interpreted by people from diverse cultural perspectives and frames of reference
  • encourage learners to compare and analyze societal patterns for transmitting and preserving culture while adapting to environmental and social change
  • enable learners to assess the importance of cultural unity and diversity within and across groups
  • have learners interpret patterns of behavior as reflecting values and attitudes which contribute to or pose obstacles to cross-cultural understanding
  • guide learners in constructing reasoned judgments about specific cultural responses to persistent human issues
  • have learners explain and apply ideas, theories, and modes of inquiry drawn from anthropology and sociology in the examination of persistent issues and social problems

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Time, Continuity, and Change
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • assist learners to understand that historical knowledge and the concept of time are socially influenced constructions that lead historians to be selective in the questions they seek to answer and the evidence they use
  • help learners apply key concepts such as time, chronology, causality, change, conflict, and complexity to explain, analyze, and show connections among patterns of historical change and continuity
  • enable learners to identify and describe significant historical periods and patterns of change within and across cultures, including but not limited to, the development of ancient cultures and civilizations, the emergence of religious belief systems, the rise of nation-states, and social, economic, and political revolutions
  • guide learners in using such processes of critical historical inquiry to reconstruct and interpret the past, such as using a variety of sources and checking their credibility, validating and weighing evidence for claims, searching for causality, and distinguishing between events and developments that are significant and those that are inconsequential
  • provide learners with opportunities to investigate, interpret, and analyze multiple historical and contemporary viewpoints within and across cultures related to important events, recurring dilemmas, and persistent issues, while employing empathy, skepticism, and critical judgment; and enable learners to apply ideas, theories, and modes of historical inquiry to analyze historical and contemporary developments, and to inform and evaluate actions concerning public policy issues.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Use of Spoken, Written, and Visual Language
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Applying Strategies to Writing
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Effective Communication
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes.

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: People, Places, and Environment
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • Enable learners to use, interpret, and distinguish various representations of Earth such as maps, globes, and photographs, and to use appropriate geographic tools
  • Encourage learners to construct, use, and refine maps and mental maps, calculate distance, scale, area, and density, and organize information about people, places, regions, and environments in a spatial context
  • Help learners to locate, distinguish, and describe the relationships among varying regional and global patterns of physical systems such as landforms, climate, and natural resources, and explain changes in the physical systems
  • Guide learners in exploring characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth’s surface
  • Have learners describe how people create places that reflect culture, human needs, current values and ideals, and government policies
  • Provide opportunities for learners to examine, interpret, and analyze interactions of human beings and their physical environments, and to observe and analyze social and economic effects of environmental changes, both positive and negative
  • Challenge learners to consider, compare, and evaluate existing uses of resources and land in communities, regions, countries, and the world
  • Direct learners to explore ways in which Earth’s physical features have changed over time, and describe and assess ways historical events have influenced and been influenced by physical and human geographic features

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