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A Horse’s Journey

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Summary

Students will demonstrate an understanding of journal writing. Students will examine and identify the characteristics of the horse and the buffalo to determine their importance to Native Americans. Students will demonstrate an understanding of Native American culture through journal writing.

Coin Type(s)

  • Dollar

Coin Program(s)

  • Native American $1 Coin

Objectives

  • Students will demonstrate an understanding of journal writing.
  • Students will examine and identify the characteristics of the horse and the buffalo to determine their importance to Native Americans.
  • Students will demonstrate an understanding of Native American culture through journal writing.

Major Subject Area Connections

  • Language Arts
  • Social Studies

Grades

  • Second grade
  • Third grade

Class Time

Sessions: Four
Session Length: 30-45 minutes
Total Length: 121-150 minutes

Groupings

  • Whole group
  • Individual work

Background Knowledge

Students should have a basic knowledge of:

  • Venn diagram
  • Characteristics
  • Native American
  • Trade route
  • Plains

Terms and Concepts

  • Quarter
  • Obverse (front)
  • Reverse (back)
  • Horse
  • Buffalo
  • Bison
  • Sacred
  • Journal writing
  • First person

Materials

  • 1 overhead projector or other classroom technology (optional)
  • 1 overhead transparency (or equivalent) of each of the following:
    • “2005 American Bison Nickel Reverse” page
    • “2012 Native American $1 Coin” page
    • “Elements of a Journal” page
    • “Horse Versus Buffalo” worksheet
    • “A Horse’s Journal” worksheet
  • Copies of the following:
    • “Horse Versus Buffalo” worksheet
    • “A Horse’s Journal” worksheet
  • 1 copy of an age-appropriate text on the American buffalo, such as:
    • The Buffalo and the Indians: A Shared Destiny by Dorothy Hinshaw Patent
    • Following the Great Herds: The Plains Indians and the American Buffalo by Ryan P. Randolph
    • Buffalo and Indians On The Great Plains by Noel Grisham
  • 1 copy of an age-appropriate text with excerpts on Native Americans and horses, such as:
    • Horse (Eye Wonder Series) by DK Publishing
    • Horses by Seymour Simon
    • The Horse Returns to America by Herman Viola
  • 1 copy of an age-appropriate text on examples of journal writing, such as:
    • Diary of a Worm by Doreen Cronin
    • Diary of a Spider by Doreen Cronin
    • Amelia’s Notebook by Marissa Moss
    • Max’s Logbook by Marissa Moss
  • 1 class map of the United States
  • Chart paper
  • Markers, pencils, crayons

Preparations

  • Make an overhead transparency (or equivalent) of each of the following:
    • “2005 American Bison Nickel Reverse” page
    • “2012 Native American $1 Coin” page
    • “Elements of a Journal” page
    • “Horse Versus Buffalo” worksheet
    • “A Horse’s Journal” worksheet
  • Make copies of each of the following:
    • “Horse Versus Buffalo” worksheet (1 per student)
    • “A Horse’s Journal” worksheet (3 to 5 per student)
  • For information on the uses of parts of a bison, refer to the “A Use For All Parts Worksheet” (from the 2005 American Bison Nickel lesson plan for Kindergarten at www.usmint.gov/kids/teachers/lessonPlans/wjns/2005/_k-amerBison.pdf).
  • Locate a text that gives information about buffalo (see examples under “Materials”).
  • Locate a text that gives information about Native Americans and horses (see examples under “Materials”).
  • Locate a text that gives information about examples of journal writing (see examples under “Materials”).

Worksheets and Files

Lesson plan, worksheet(s), and rubric (if any) at www.usmint.gov/kids/teachers/lessonPlans/pdf/119.pdf.

Sessions 1

  1. Display the “2005 American Bison Nickel Reverse” overhead transparency from The Westward Journey Nickel Series™ and allow the students time to examine the image. Explain to them that this large animal was seen long ago on the plains. If necessary, tell them that this animal is known as the bison or buffalo. (Explain that the American bison is not really a buffalo—no species of buffalo is native to North America—but we often use the term “buffalo” to describe the American bison.
  2. Introduce the students to the selected text on buffalo. Preview the text and illustrations and allow students to generate observations about buffalo and why they may have been so important to Native Americans. Read the text aloud. During the reading, attend to any unfamiliar vocabulary.
  3. After the reading, discuss the importance of the buffalo. Tell the students that the buffalo was a very important animal to the Native Americans and confirm or revise any student predictions about the buffalo’s importance. Explain to the students that the buffalo had many uses to the people as well as being a sacred animal.
  4. As a class, develop a list of characteristics and uses that the buffalo had for Native Americans. Guide student responses to include food, clothing materials, etc. Record the student responses on a class chart.

Session 2

  1. Describe the Native American $1 Coin Program for background information. The program is described at www.usmint.gov/kids/coinNews/nativeAmerican/.
  2. Display the “2012 Native American $1 Coin” overhead transparency and let the students examine the image. Explain to them that this animal was seen long ago on the plains. Tell the students that the horse had a very strong impact on Native American life and is still important to Native Americans today. Horses were important along trade routes because they could be traded and could transport goods more easily. Horses also were used throughout the seasons to transport food and to move families to different trade posts and set up new villages nearby.
  3. Introduce the students to the selected text on horses. Preview the text and illustrations and allow students to generate observations about horses and why they may have been so important to the Native Americans. Read the text aloud. During the reading, attend to any unfamiliar vocabulary.
  4. After the reading, discuss uses of the horse. Tell the students that the horse, similar to the buffalo, was a very important and useful animal to the Native Americans. Confirm or revise any student predictions about the horse’s importance.
  5. As a class, develop a list of characteristics and uses the Native Americans had for the horse. Guide student responses to include travel for hunting, moving, and trading, as well as for warfare. Record the student responses on a class chart.
  6. Display the “Horse Versus Buffalo” overhead transparency. Explain to the students that they will compare and contrast the importance to the Native Americans of each of these animals.
  7. Distribute the “Horse Versus Buffalo” worksheet and allow students time to complete the assignment.
  8. Review the Venn diagrams with the students.
  9. Create a class Venn diagram based on student responses.

Sessions 3 and 4

  1. Review the charts and Venn diagram from the previous session. Discuss the differences between the horse and buffalo and focus on the importance of the horse to the Native Americans.
  2. Introduce the students to the selected text on journal writing. Preview the text and illustrations and allow students to generate observations about journals. Read the text aloud. During the reading, attend to any unfamiliar vocabulary.
  3. After the reading, discuss the elements and purposes of a journal. Display the “Elements of a Journal” page overhead transparency. Discuss with the students the concept of perspective writing and share a sample journal entry. Tell the students that a journal is a daily record of events written in the first person.
  4. Display the “A Horse’s Journal” overhead transparency. Explain to the students that they will be writing journal entries from a horse’s perspective of 3 to 5 days living with the Native Americans.
  5. Display the “Elements of a Journal” page again and keep it on display for the students’ reference while completing the assignment.
  6. Allow appropriate time for students to work on their assignment.
  7. Share or display student journals.

Differentiated Learning Options

  • Allow students to work in pairs, each describing one animal and sharing with a partner who has a different animal.
  • Allow students to use a scribe or computer program to complete their worksheets.
  • Allow students to adjust the amount of journal entries to one or two.
  • Provide journal starters for the students.

Enrichments/Extensions

  • Have students research the trade routes and create a map to go along with their journals documenting the route that the horse took.
  • Have students research other animals that were and still are important to the Native Americans and compare and contrast them with the horse.
  • Have students learn more about the importance of the horse to the Native Americans by visiting the National Museum of American Indian exhibit, the “Spread of the Horse” at americanindian.si.edu/exhibitions/horsenation/index.html.
  • Take anecdotal notes about the students’ participation in class discussions.
  • Evaluate the students’ worksheets for understanding of the lesson objectives.
There are no related resources for this lesson plan.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.3 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Text Types and Purposes
Standards:

  • W.3.1. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons.
    • Introduce the topic or text they are writing about, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure that lists reasons.
    • Provide reasons that support the opinion.
    • Use linking words and phrases (e.g., because, therefore, since, for example) to connect opinion and reasons.
    • Provide a concluding statement or section.
  • W.3.2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
    • Introduce a topic and group related information together; include illustrations when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • Develop the topic with facts, definitions, and details.
    • Use linking words and phrases (e.g., also, another, and, more, but) to connect ideas within categories of information.
    • Provide a concluding statement or section.
  • W.3.3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
    • Establish a situation and introduce a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
    • Use dialogue and descriptions of actions, thoughts, and feelings to develop experiences and events or show the response of characters to situations.
    • Use temporal words and phrases to signal event order.
    • Provide a sense of closure.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.2 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
Standards:

  • SL.2.1. Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 2 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
    • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
    • Build on others’ talk in conversations by linking their comments to the remarks of others.
    • Ask for clarification and further explanation as needed about the topics and texts under discussion.
  • SL.2.2. Recount or describe key ideas or details from a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.
  • SL.2.3. Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to clarify comprehension, gather additional information, or deepen understanding of a topic or issue. 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.2 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • SL.2.4. Tell a story or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking audibly in coherent sentences.
  • SL.2.5. Create audio recordings of stories or poems; add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.
  • SL.2.6. Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification. (See grade 2 Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.3 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
Standards:

  • SL.3.1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 3 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    • Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
    • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
    • Ask questions to check understanding of information presented, stay on topic, and link their comments to the remarks of others.
    • Explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.
  • SL.3.2. Determine the main ideas and supporting details of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
  • SL.3.3. Ask and answer questions about information from a speaker, offering appropriate elaboration and detail.
  • SL.3.4. Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking clearly at an understandable pace.
  • SL.3.5. Create engaging audio recordings of stories or poems that demonstrate fluid reading at an understandable pace; add visual displays when appropriate to emphasize or enhance certain facts or details.
  • SL.3.6. Speak in complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification. (See grade 3 Language standards 1 and 3 here for specific expectations.) 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.2 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Text Types and Purposes
Standards:

  • W.2.1. Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words (e.g., because, and, also) to connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement or section.
  • W.2.2. Write informative/explanatory texts in which they introduce a topic, use facts and definitions to develop points, and provide a concluding statement or section.
  • W.2.3. Write narratives in which they recount a well-elaborated event or short sequence of events, include details to describe actions, thoughts, and feelings, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide a sense of closure.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.2 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RL.2.4. Describe how words and phrases (e.g., regular beats, alliteration, rhymes, repeated lines) supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song.
  • RL.2.5. Describe the overall structure of a story, including describing how the beginning introduces the story and the ending concludes the action.
  • RL.2.6. Acknowledge differences in the points of view of characters, including by speaking in a different voice for each character when reading dialogue aloud.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.2 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RL.2.7. Use information gained from the illustrations and words in a print or digital text to demonstrate understanding of its characters, setting, or plot.
  • RL.2.8. not applicable to literature.
  • RL.2.9. Compare and contrast two or more versions of the same story (e.g., Cinderella stories) by different authors or from different cultures.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.2 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RL.2.1. Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.
  • RL.2.2. Recount stories, including fables and folktales from diverse cultures, and determine their central message, lesson, or moral.
  • RL.2.3. Describe how characters in a story respond to major events and challenges.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.3 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RL.3.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, distinguishing literal from nonliteral language.
  • RL.3.5. Refer to parts of stories, dramas, and poems when writing or speaking about a text, using terms such as chapter, scene, and stanza; describe how each successive part builds on earlier sections.
  • RL.3.6. Distinguish their own point of view from that of the narrator or those of the characters.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.3 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RL.3.7. Explain how specific aspects of a text’s illustrations contribute to what is conveyed by the words in a story (e.g., create mood, emphasize aspects of a character or setting).
  • RL.3.8. not applicable to literature.
  • RL.3.9. Compare and contrast the themes, settings, and plots of stories written by the same author about the same or similar characters (e.g., in books from a series).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.3 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RL.3.1. Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.
  • RL.3.2. Recount stories, including fables, folktales, and myths from diverse cultures; determine the central message, lesson, or moral and explain how it is conveyed through key details in the text.
  • RL.3.3. Describe characters in a story (e.g., their traits, motivations, or feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.2 Language
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.2.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Use collective nouns (e.g., group).
    • Form and use frequently occurring irregular plural nouns (e.g., feet, children, teeth, mice, fish).
    • Use reflexive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves)
    • Form and use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs (e.g., sat, hid, told).
    • Use adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.
    • Produce, expand, and rearrange complete simple and compound sentences (e.g., The boy watched the movie; The little boy watched the movie; The action movie was watched by the little boy).
  • L.2.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Capitalize holidays, product names, and geographic names.
    • Use commas in greetings and closings of letters.
    • Use an apostrophe to form contractions and frequently occurring possessives.
    • Generalize learned spelling patterns when writing words (e.g., cage --> badge; boy --> boil).
    • Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.3 Language
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.3.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Explain the function of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in general and their functions in particular sentences.
    • Form and use regular and irregular plural nouns.
    • Use abstract nouns (e.g., childhood).
    • Form and use regular and irregular verbs.
    • Form and use the simple (e.g., I walked; I walk; I will walk) verb tenses.
    • Ensure subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement.
    • Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.
    • Use coordinating and subordinating conjunctions.
    • Produce simple, compound, and complex sentences.
  • L.3.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Capitalize appropriate words in titles.
    • Use commas in addresses.
    • Use commas and quotation marks in dialogue.
    • Form and use possessives.
    • Use conventional spelling for high-frequency and other studied words and for adding suffixes to base words (e.g., sitting, smiled, cries, happiness).
    • Use spelling patterns and generalizations (e.g., word families, position-based spellings, syllable patterns, ending rules, meaningful word parts) in writing words.
    • Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Applying Knowledge to Language
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions (e.g., spelling and punctuation), media techniques, figurative language, and genre to create, critique, and discuss print and nonprint texts.

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Time, Continuity, and Change
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • assist learners to understand that historical knowledge and the concept of time are socially influenced constructions that lead historians to be selective in the questions they seek to answer and the evidence they use
  • help learners apply key concepts such as time, chronology, causality, change, conflict, and complexity to explain, analyze, and show connections among patterns of historical change and continuity
  • enable learners to identify and describe significant historical periods and patterns of change within and across cultures, including but not limited to, the development of ancient cultures and civilizations, the emergence of religious belief systems, the rise of nation-states, and social, economic, and political revolutions
  • guide learners in using such processes of critical historical inquiry to reconstruct and interpret the past, such as using a variety of sources and checking their credibility, validating and weighing evidence for claims, searching for causality, and distinguishing between events and developments that are significant and those that are inconsequential
  • provide learners with opportunities to investigate, interpret, and analyze multiple historical and contemporary viewpoints within and across cultures related to important events, recurring dilemmas, and persistent issues, while employing empathy, skepticism, and critical judgment; and enable learners to apply ideas, theories, and modes of historical inquiry to analyze historical and contemporary developments, and to inform and evaluate actions concerning public policy issues.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Use of Spoken, Written, and Visual Language
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Culture and Cultural Diversity
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • assist learners to understand and apply the concept of culture as an integrated whole that governs the functions and interactions of language, literature, arts, traditions, beliefs, values, and behavior patterns
  • enable learners to analyze and explain how groups, societies, and cultures address human needs and concerns
  • guide learners as they predict how experiences may be interpreted by people from diverse cultural perspectives and frames of reference
  • encourage learners to compare and analyze societal patterns for transmitting and preserving culture while adapting to environmental and social change
  • enable learners to assess the importance of cultural unity and diversity within and across groups
  • have learners interpret patterns of behavior as reflecting values and attitudes which contribute to or pose obstacles to cross-cultural understanding
  • guide learners in constructing reasoned judgments about specific cultural responses to persistent human issues
  • have learners explain and apply ideas, theories, and modes of inquiry drawn from anthropology and sociology in the examination of persistent issues and social problems

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Applying Strategies to Writing
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Effective Communication
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes.

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: People, Places, and Environment
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • Enable learners to use, interpret, and distinguish various representations of Earth such as maps, globes, and photographs, and to use appropriate geographic tools
  • Encourage learners to construct, use, and refine maps and mental maps, calculate distance, scale, area, and density, and organize information about people, places, regions, and environments in a spatial context
  • Help learners to locate, distinguish, and describe the relationships among varying regional and global patterns of physical systems such as landforms, climate, and natural resources, and explain changes in the physical systems
  • Guide learners in exploring characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth’s surface
  • Have learners describe how people create places that reflect culture, human needs, current values and ideals, and government policies
  • Provide opportunities for learners to examine, interpret, and analyze interactions of human beings and their physical environments, and to observe and analyze social and economic effects of environmental changes, both positive and negative
  • Challenge learners to consider, compare, and evaluate existing uses of resources and land in communities, regions, countries, and the world
  • Direct learners to explore ways in which Earth’s physical features have changed over time, and describe and assess ways historical events have influenced and been influenced by physical and human geographic features

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