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Because of the Horse

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Summary

Students will describe the impact the horse had on Native American culture and lifestyles. Students will apply the concept of change to another important invention in a specific society.

Coin Type(s)

  • Dollar

Coin Program(s)

  • Native American $1 Coin

Objectives

  • Students will describe the impact that the introduction and expanded use of the horse had on Native American culture and lifestyles.
  • Students will describe changes caused by the spread of the horse in terms of cause and effect.
  • Students will apply the concept of change to another important invention in a specific society.

Major Subject Area Connections

  • Social Studies

Minor/supporting Subject Area Connections

  • Language Arts

Grades

  • Fourth grade
  • Fifth grade
  • Sixth grade

Class Time

Sessions: Three
Session Length: 45-60 minutes
Total Length: 151-500 minutes

Groupings

  • Whole group
  • Small groups
  • Pairs
  • Individual work

Background Knowledge

Students should have a basic knowledge of:

  • Native Americans
  • Plains Indians
  • Trade
  • Change over time

Terms and Concepts

  • Quarter
  • Obverse (front)
  • Reverse (back)
  • Cause and effect
  • Transportation
  • Food
  • Lifestyle
  • Economics

Materials

  • 1 overhead projector or other classroom technology (optional)
  • 1 overhead transparency (or equivalent) of the “2012 Native American $1 Coin” page
  • Copies of the following:
    • “Thanks to the Horse, of Course!” worksheet
    • “Cause and Effect Coin” worksheet
    • “Charting Effects of Change” worksheet
  • 1 copy of an age-appropriate text that tells a fictional story, legend, or folktale about horses and Native Americans, such as:
    • The Mud Pony by Caron Lee Cohen
    • Mystic Horse by Paul Goble
    • The Gift of the Sacred Dog by Paul Goble
    • The Girl Who Loved Wild Horses by Paul Goble
    • Daily Life In A Plains Indian Village 1868 by Michael “Badhand” Terry
    • Sky Dogs by Jane Yolen
  • Age-appropriate materials for partner research that provide additional historical information about the spread of the horse and the effects on Native American culture, such as Internet websites, videos, textbooks, reference materials, and other texts.
  • Internet access (optional)
  • Chart paper
  • Sticky notes
  • Markers, pencils, crayons

Preparations

  • Make an overhead transparency (or photocopy) of the “2012 Native American $1 Coin” page
  • Make copies of the following:
    • “Thanks to the Horse, of Course!” worksheet (1 per student)
    • “Cause and Effect Coin” worksheet (1 per student)
    • “Charting Effects of Change” worksheet (1 per student)
  • Locate a text that tells a fictional story, legend, or folktale about horses and Native Americans (see examples under “Materials”).
  • Locate materials for partner research that provide additional historical information about the spread of the horse and the effects on Native American culture/lifestyle (see examples under “Materials”).
  • Prepare a T-Chart labeled “Before Horses” and “After Horses.”

Worksheets and Files

Lesson plan, worksheet(s), and rubric (if any) at www.usmint.gov/kids/teachers/lessonPlans/pdf/120.pdf.

Sessions 1 and 2

  1. Describe the Native American $1 Coin Program for background information. The program is described at www.usmint.gov/kids/coinNews/nativeAmerican/.
  2. Display the “2012 Native American $1 Coin Reverse” overhead transparency or photocopy. Tell the students that the back of a coin is called the reverse, and “obverse” is another name for the front.
  3. Ask the students to examine the coin image and tell you what they see in this image. Explain to the students that the theme of this coin is “The Spread of the Horse.” Remind the students that the horse was very important to the Plains Indians.
  4. Introduce the students to the selected fictional text about Native Americans and horses. Explain to the students that they will be listening to a story, legend, or folktale that represents the special relationship that Plains Indians had with horses.
  5. Read the text aloud. After reading, ask the students to briefly share with a partner why they think the horse was so important to the Plains Indians.
  6. Remind the students that they have learned much about Native Americans and the various regions and tribes of the United States. Explain to the students that, while horses were eventually important to these people, they were not always present.
  7. Display the T-chart labeled “Before Horses” and “After Horses” and encourage the students to think about what the lives of the Plains Indians might have been like both before and after the wide use of horses. Ask the students to work in pairs or small groups to brainstorm and record ideas on sticky notes. After their brainstorming, ask each pair or group to share their ideas and stick the notes to the main chart.
  8. Distribute the “Thanks to the Horse, of Course!” worksheet. As a review, have the students recall and note the most important information gathered in the previous session about Native American life before and after horses.
  9. Explain to the students that they will be researching additional information about the importance of the spread of horses to the culture and lifestyle of Native American of the plains. Allow the students time to work with partners using text and/or Internet resources. Ask the students to record their notes on the “Thanks to the Horse, of Course!” worksheet.
  10. After time for research, ask the pairs to share their findings and add any new information to the class chart as appropriate.
  11. Introduce and post the following terms on chart paper: “Transportation,” “Food,” “Trade,” “Lifestyle,” and “Economics.” Review the definitions of these terms as needed. Ask the teams to take a few more minutes to brainstorm any additional ideas about the spread of horses after discussing these terms. Share and add any new ideas to the “Before/After Horses” chart. As a class, create a summary statement to add to the bottom of the chart.
  12. Discuss the terms “cause and effect.” If necessary, tell the students “cause” is why something happens and “effect” is what happens as a result. Discuss the meanings of these words using simple classroom examples. Examples might include:
    • What are the effects of the fire alarm sounding?
    • What are the effects of rainy weather?
    • What was the cause of extra recess?
    • What was the cause of extra homework?
  13. Ask the students to shift their thinking about Native American life before and after horses to focus on cause and effect. What was the cause of the change? What were the effects? Discuss these ideas as a class.
  14. Distribute the “Cause and Effect Coin” worksheet. Review the directions with the students. Tell the students they will write a paragraph based on the following prompt and the gathered information: If the spread of the horse was the cause of change, what were the effects of this change?
  15. Have the students cut out the coin circles and glue them on construction paper, then share their work with their peers. As time allows, the paragraphs can also be illustrated.
  16. Display the coins in the classroom.
  17. Explain to the students that in the next session they will be applying their understanding of cause and effects to another invention that led to significant cultural/lifestyle change.

Session 3

  1. Display the “2012 Native American $1 Coin” page. Review with the students the charts and material covered in the previous sessions, particularly the importance of horses to some Native Americans, and the causes and effects of the change related to the spread of the horse.
  2. Ask the students to brainstorm other major discoveries or inventions that caused significant cultural change, perhaps in the areas of transportation, food, lifestyle, or economics. Create a list on chart paper. Ideas may include fire, the wheel, electricity, phone, car, and paper/coin money.
  3. Distribute and explain the “Charting Effects of Change” worksheet. Ask the pairs or small groups of students to each choose a different idea from the chart and identify the effects of this new discovery or invention using the worksheet.
  4. Have the students present their ideas to the class.

Differentiated Learning Options

  • Allow students to work in pairs to create their “Cause and Effect Coin” paragraphs.
  • Allow students to dictate written responses or use word processing.
  • Provide more structured materials for research to limit the amount of sources need to review.

Enrichments/Extensions

  • Have students research specific Native American tribes and their use of horses.
  • Have students read other legends and fictional stories from Native American culture, then create their own Native American story involving horses.
  • Have students research, write about, and share other major changes that affected the Native Americans using the cause and effect framework.
  • Take anecdotal notes about the students’ participation in class discussions.
  • Evaluate the students’ worksheets for understanding of the lesson objectives.
There are no related resources for this lesson plan.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.4 Language
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.4.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Use relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) and relative adverbs (where, when, why).
    • Form and use the progressive (e.g., I was walking; I am walking; I will be walking) verb tenses.
    • Use modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, must) to convey various conditions.
    • Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag).
    • Form and use prepositional phrases.
    • Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.
    • Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to, too, two; there, their).
  • L.4.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Use correct capitalization.
    • Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a text.
    • Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence.
    • Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.5 Language
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.5.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Explain the function of conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections in general and their function in particular sentences.
    • Form and use the perfect (e.g., I had walked; I have walked; I will have walked) verb tenses.
    • Use verb tense to convey various times, sequences, states, and conditions.
    • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense.
    • Use correlative conjunctions (e.g., either/or, neither/nor).
  • L.5.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Use punctuation to separate items in a series.
    • Use a comma to separate an introductory element from the rest of the sentence.
    • Use a comma to set off the words yes and no (e.g., Yes, thank you), to set off a tag question from the rest of the sentence (e.g., It’s true, isn’t it?), and to indicate direct address (e.g., Is that you, Steve?).
    • Use underlining, quotation marks, or italics to indicate titles of works.
    • Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.6 Language
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.6.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Ensure that pronouns are in the proper case (subjective, objective, possessive).
    • Use intensive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves).
    • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person.
    • Recognize and correct vague pronouns (i.e., ones with unclear or ambiguous antecedents).
    • Recognize variations from standard English in their own and others' writing and speaking, and identify and use strategies to improve expression in conventional language.
  • L.6.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Use punctuation (commas, parentheses, dashes) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements.
    • Spell correctly.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.4 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.4.7. Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.
  • W.4.8. Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources.
  • W.4.9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    • Apply grade 4 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions].”).
    • Apply grade 4 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., “Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text”).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.5 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.5.7. Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.
  • W.5.8. Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of sources.
  • W.5.9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    • Apply grade 5 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or a drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., how characters interact]”).
    • Apply grade 5 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., “Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point[s]”).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.6 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.6.7. Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and refocusing the inquiry when appropriate.
  • W.6.8. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; assess the credibility of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources.
  • W.6.9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    • Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres [e.g., stories and poems; historical novels and fantasy stories] in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics”).
    • Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not”).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.4 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
Standards:

  • SL.4.1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    • Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
    • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
    • Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of others.
    • Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.
  • SL.4.2. Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
  • SL.4.3. Identify the reasons and evidence a speaker provides to support particular points. 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.4 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • SL.4.4. Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.
  • SL.4.5. Add audio recordings and visual displays to presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.
  • SL.4.6. Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion); use formal English when appropriate to task and situation. (See grade 4 Language standards 1 for specific expectations.)

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.5 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
Standards:

  • SL.5.1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 5 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    • Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
    • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
    • Pose and respond to specific questions by making comments that contribute to the discussion and elaborate on the remarks of others.
    • Review the key ideas expressed and draw conclusions in light of information and knowledge gained from the discussions.
  • SL.5.2. Summarize a written text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
  • SL.5.3. Summarize the points a speaker makes and explain how each claim is supported by reasons and evidence.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.5 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • SL.5.4. Report on a topic or text or present an opinion, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.
  • SL.5.5. Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, sound) and visual displays in presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.
  • SL.5.6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, using formal English when appropriate to task and situation. (See grade 5 Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.)

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.6 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
Standards:

  • SL.6.1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 6 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    • Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
    • Follow rules for collegial discussions, set specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
    • Pose and respond to specific questions with elaboration and detail by making comments that contribute to the topic, text, or issue under discussion.
    • Review the key ideas expressed and demonstrate understanding of multiple perspectives through reflection and paraphrasing.
  • SL.6.2. Interpret information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and explain how it contributes to a topic, text, or issue under study.
  • SL.6.3. Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.6 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • SL.6.4. Present claims and findings, sequencing ideas logically and using pertinent descriptions, facts, and details to accentuate main ideas or themes; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.
  • SL.6.5. Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, images, music, sound) and visual displays in presentations to clarify information.
  • SL.6.6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 6 Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.)

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Applying Knowledge to Language
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions (e.g., spelling and punctuation), media techniques, figurative language, and genre to create, critique, and discuss print and nonprint texts.

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Time, Continuity, and Change
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • assist learners to understand that historical knowledge and the concept of time are socially influenced constructions that lead historians to be selective in the questions they seek to answer and the evidence they use
  • help learners apply key concepts such as time, chronology, causality, change, conflict, and complexity to explain, analyze, and show connections among patterns of historical change and continuity
  • enable learners to identify and describe significant historical periods and patterns of change within and across cultures, including but not limited to, the development of ancient cultures and civilizations, the emergence of religious belief systems, the rise of nation-states, and social, economic, and political revolutions
  • guide learners in using such processes of critical historical inquiry to reconstruct and interpret the past, such as using a variety of sources and checking their credibility, validating and weighing evidence for claims, searching for causality, and distinguishing between events and developments that are significant and those that are inconsequential
  • provide learners with opportunities to investigate, interpret, and analyze multiple historical and contemporary viewpoints within and across cultures related to important events, recurring dilemmas, and persistent issues, while employing empathy, skepticism, and critical judgment; and enable learners to apply ideas, theories, and modes of historical inquiry to analyze historical and contemporary developments, and to inform and evaluate actions concerning public policy issues.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Use of Spoken, Written, and Visual Language
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Culture and Cultural Diversity
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • assist learners to understand and apply the concept of culture as an integrated whole that governs the functions and interactions of language, literature, arts, traditions, beliefs, values, and behavior patterns
  • enable learners to analyze and explain how groups, societies, and cultures address human needs and concerns
  • guide learners as they predict how experiences may be interpreted by people from diverse cultural perspectives and frames of reference
  • encourage learners to compare and analyze societal patterns for transmitting and preserving culture while adapting to environmental and social change
  • enable learners to assess the importance of cultural unity and diversity within and across groups
  • have learners interpret patterns of behavior as reflecting values and attitudes which contribute to or pose obstacles to cross-cultural understanding
  • guide learners in constructing reasoned judgments about specific cultural responses to persistent human issues
  • have learners explain and apply ideas, theories, and modes of inquiry drawn from anthropology and sociology in the examination of persistent issues and social problems

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Applying Strategies to Writing
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Effective Communication
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes.

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: People, Places, and Environment
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • Enable learners to use, interpret, and distinguish various representations of Earth such as maps, globes, and photographs, and to use appropriate geographic tools
  • Encourage learners to construct, use, and refine maps and mental maps, calculate distance, scale, area, and density, and organize information about people, places, regions, and environments in a spatial context
  • Help learners to locate, distinguish, and describe the relationships among varying regional and global patterns of physical systems such as landforms, climate, and natural resources, and explain changes in the physical systems
  • Guide learners in exploring characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth’s surface
  • Have learners describe how people create places that reflect culture, human needs, current values and ideals, and government policies
  • Provide opportunities for learners to examine, interpret, and analyze interactions of human beings and their physical environments, and to observe and analyze social and economic effects of environmental changes, both positive and negative
  • Challenge learners to consider, compare, and evaluate existing uses of resources and land in communities, regions, countries, and the world
  • Direct learners to explore ways in which Earth’s physical features have changed over time, and describe and assess ways historical events have influenced and been influenced by physical and human geographic features

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