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What Price for the Horse?

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Summary

Students will identify factors that influence economic activities and trade. The students will identify the three levels of economic activity.

Coin Type(s)

  • Dollar

Coin Program(s)

  • Native American $1 Coin

Objectives

  • Students will identify factors that influence economic activities and trade.
  • Students will identify the three levels of economic activity.

Major Subject Area Connections

  • Language Arts
  • Social Studies

Grades

  • Seventh grade
  • Eighth grade

Class Time

Sessions: Five
Session Length: 45-60 minutes
Total Length: 151-500 minutes

Groupings

  • Whole group
  • Individual work

Background Knowledge

Students should have a basic knowledge of:

  • Writing process
  • Native Americans
  • Natural resources
  • Transportation
  • Goods
  • Persuasive writing
  • Thesis statement
  • Geographic regions of the United States

Terms and Concepts

  • Quarter
  • Obverse (front)
  • Reverse (back)
  • Levels of economic activity
  • Primary
  • Secondary
  • Tertiary
  • Plains Indians

Materials

  • 1 overhead projector (optional)
  • 1 overhead transparency or electronic version of the following:
    • “2012 Native American $1 Coin” page
    • “Levels of Economic Activity” sheet
    • “Spread of the Horse Rubric”
  • Copies of the following:
    • “Plains Indian Research” worksheet
    • “Before the Spread of the Horse” map
    • “After the Spread of the Horse” map
    • “Spread of the Horse Rubric”
  • Copies of age-appropriate texts that contain information on Plains Indian, such as:
    • Indians of the Plains by Elaine Andrews
    • Daily Life in a Plains Indian Village, 1868 by Michael Bad Hand Terry.
    • The Native Tribes of North America : a Concise Encyclopedia by Michael G. Johnson
    • The Horse’s Return to America by Hermann Viola
  • Chart paper
  • Examples of the Opinion section from several Sunday newspapers that contain articles written by experts in a field.
  • Computers with Internet access

Preparations

  • Make an overhead transparency (or photocopy) of each of the following:
    • “2012 Native American $1 Coin” page
    • “Levels of Economic Activity” sheet
    • “Plains Indian Territory” map
    • “Spread of the Horse Rubric”
  • Make copies of each of the following:
    • “Before the Spread of the Horse” map (1 per student)
    • “After the Spread of the Horse” map (1 per student)
    • “Spread of the Horse Rubric” (1 per student)
    • “Plains Indian Research” worksheet (1 per student)
  • Gather texts that contain information on Plains Indians (see examples under “Materials”).
  • Gather newspapers with an Opinion section.
  • Arrange to use the school computer lab for two sessions.
  • Bookmark Internet sites that contain information about the Plains Indian, such as:
  • Make a chart with a Venn diagram labeled “Horse” and “Motorized Vehicles.”
  • Make a chart with a brainstorm web labeled “Horse” in the center.

Worksheets and Files

Lesson plan, worksheet(s), and rubric (if any) at www.usmint.gov/kids/teachers/lessonPlans/pdf/121.pdf.

Session 1

  1. Describe the Native American $1 Coin Program for background information. The program is described at www.usmint.gov/kids/coinNews/nativeAmerican/.
  2. Display the “2012 Native American $1 Coin” overhead transparency or electronic version. Tell the students that the back of the coin is called the reverse and “obverse” is another name for the front of a coin.
  3. With the students, examine the coin design. Have the students identify the images and the writing included in this design. Focus specifically on the image of the horse. Explain to the students that the theme of this coin is “The Spread of the Horse.” Display the chart paper with the web labeled “Horse.” Ask the students to think of ideas related to the horse and write them on the web. If necessary, guide the students to look at the horse as a means of transportation.
  4. Display the Venn diagram labeled “Horse” and “Motorized Vehicles.” Have the students compare the two as a means of transportation. If necessary, guide the students to focus on the speed of each and their ability to carry heavy loads.
  5. Have the students brainstorm some ideas on how life would be different today if motorized vehicles had not been invented. Record student responses on chart paper.
  6. Have the students write about what life would be like without motorized vehicles.
  7. When the students are finished writing, have them share their writing with a partner. Add the student responses to the chart paper.
  8. Review the geographic regions of the United States and the characteristics of each region. Explain to the students that prior to the 18th century, horses did not live in the area of the Plains Indians. They had to rely on themselves and on dogs for transportation. Then in the 18th century, the horse was introduced to the Plains Indian by the Spanish. Some of these horses escaped or were traded to the Native Americans.

Session 2

  1. Review charts and map from the previous session.
  2. Display the “Levels of Economic Activity” sheet. Explain to the students the different levels of economic activity. Review the sheet and the examples in the outside circles with the students.
  3. Distribute the “Plains Indians Research” worksheet. Explain to the students that they will be researching the information to complete the worksheet.
  4. Have the students use the printed texts or take the students to the computer lab to allow them time to research.

Sessions 3 and 4

  1. Review the map and charts from the previous sessions.
  2. Display copies of the Opinion section of several Sunday newspapers. Read several paragraphs from some of the articles on the front page of the section. If there are pictures or maps that accompany the article, discuss their use with the students and how they enhance the article. Explain to the students that these articles are usually written by members of the newspaper staff or by experts or authorities in that particular field. Explain to the students that these experts are interpreting facts and making a persuasive argument of their view on a particular topic. These experts cite facts and then draw conclusions from the facts.
  3. Review persuasive writing and its audience with the students. Review writing a thesis statement for the persuasive writing. Explain to the students that they will be writing five paragraphs and the outline for the article is the following:
    • Introduction
    • Describe what life was like before the horse.
    • Describe what life was like after the horse.
    • Your opinion of why the horse was so important to the Plains Indian.
    • Conclusion
  4. Explain to the students that they are becoming experts about the influence of the horse on the Plains Indians. Explain to the students that they will use their research to write their article. They are going to use 2 maps to show the trade routes and movement of the Plains Indians along with the products they traded to enhance their article.
  5. Distribute the “Before the Spread of the Horse” and the “After the Spread of the Horse” maps. Explain that each article will be accompanied by two maps. One will show trade and movement before the introduction of the horse and one will show trade and movement after the introduction of the horse.
  6. Distribute copies of the “Spread of the Horse Rubric.” Review it with the students. Allow the students time to complete their maps and articles, emphasizing the use of the writing process.
  7. When they are finished, have the students complete the rubric.
  8. Display student work.

Differentiated Learning Options

  • Allow students to work in pairs or small groups.
  • Allow students to complete the assignment orally.
  • Locate visual or auditory sources for research.

Enrichments/Extensions

  • Create a class newspaper and include the articles from the lesson.
  • Post student articles on the school or class Web page if available.
  • Highlight specific tribes from the Plains Indians cultural area and summarize the influence the horse had on their lives.
  • Take anecdotal notes about the students’ participation in class discussions.
  • Evaluate the students’ worksheets and rubrics for understanding of the lesson objectives.
There are no related resources for this lesson plan.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.8 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 8
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RI.8.1. Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
  • RI.8.2. Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to supporting ideas; provide an objective summary of the text.
  • RI.8.3. Analyze how a text makes connections among and distinctions between individuals, ideas, or events (e.g., through comparisons, analogies, or categories).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.7 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 8
Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
Standards:

  • SL.7.1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    • Come to discussions prepared, having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
    • Follow rules for collegial discussions, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
    • Pose questions that elicit elaboration and respond to others’ questions and comments with relevant observations and ideas that bring the discussion back on topic as needed.
    • Acknowledge new information expressed by others and, when warranted, modify their own views.
  • SL.7.2. Analyze the main ideas and supporting details presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and explain how the ideas clarify a topic, text, or issue under study.
  • SL.7.3. Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.8 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 8
Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
Standards:

  • SL.8.1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 8 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    • Come to discussions prepared having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
    • Follow rules for collegial discussions and decision-making, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
    • Pose questions that connect the ideas of several speakers and respond to others’ questions and comments with relevant evidence, observations, and ideas.
    • Acknowledge new information expressed by others, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views in light of the evidence presented.
  • SL.8.2. Analyze the purpose of information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and evaluate the motives (e.g., social, commercial, political) behind its presentation.
  • SL.8.3. Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and relevance and sufficiency of the evidence and identifying when irrelevant evidence is introduced.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.7 Language
Grade(s): Grade 8
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.7.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Explain the function of phrases and clauses in general and their function in specific sentences.
    • Choose among simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences to signal differing relationships among ideas.
    • Place phrases and clauses within a sentence, recognizing and correcting misplaced and dangling modifiers.
  • L.7.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Use a comma to separate coordinate adjectives (e.g., It was a fascinating, enjoyable movie but not He wore an old[,] green shirt).
    • Spell correctly.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.8 Language
Grade(s): Grade 8
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.8.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Explain the function of verbals (gerunds, participles, infinitives) in general and their function in particular sentences.
    • Form and use verbs in the active and passive voice.
    • Form and use verbs in the indicative, imperative, interrogative, conditional, and subjunctive mood.
    • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood.
  • L.8.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Use punctuation (comma, ellipsis, dash) to indicate a pause or break.
    • Use an ellipsis to indicate an omission.
    • Spell correctly.

This lesson plan is not associated with any National Standards.