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Making Treaties

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Summary

Students will explore the concept of treaties and will use negotiations to resolve a conflict.

Coin Type(s)

  • Dollar

Coin Program(s)

  • Native American $1 Coin

Major Subject Area Connections

  • Language Arts
  • Social Studies

Grades

  • Third grade
  • Fourth grade
  • Fifth grade

Class Time

Sessions: Two
Session Length: 30-45 minutes
Total Length: 46-90 minutes

Groupings

  • Whole group
  • Small groups
  • Individual work

Background Knowledge

Students should have a basic knowledge of:

  • The writing process
  • Native Americans
  • Causes of conflict

Terms and Concepts

  • Quarter
  • Obverse (front)
  • Reverse (back)
  • Native American
  • Treaty
  • Diplomacy
  • Peace
  • Negotiation
  • Conflict
  • Agriculture

Materials

  • 1 overhead projector (optional)
  • 1 overhead transparency (or photocopy) of the "2011 Native American $1 Coin" page
  • Copies of the following:
    • "Brainstorm Boxes" worksheet
    • "A Treaty of Peace" worksheet–
    • "K-W-L Chart" worksheet–
  • Writing materials

Preparations

  • Make copies of the "A Treaty of Peace" worksheet (1 per student)
  • Make an overhead transparency (or photocopy) of the "2011 Native American $1 Coin" page.
  • Make copies of the following:
    • "Brainstorm Boxes" worksheet (1 per student)
    • "A Treaty of Peace" worksheet (1 per student)
    • "K-W-L Chart" worksheet (1 per student)

Worksheets and Files

Lesson plan, worksheet(s), and rubric (if any) at www.usmint.gov/kids/teachers/lessonPlans/pdf/124.pdf.

Session 1

  1. Describe the Native American $1 Coin Program for background information.
  2. Display the transparency or photocopy of the "2011 Native American $1 Coin" page. Tell the students that "reverse" is another name for the back of a coin, and "obverse" is another name for the front.
  3. Introduce the term "treaty." Tell the students that the image on the coin represents the concept of treaties or alliances between tribes or early governments on the North American continent. Explain the following: Within Native American culture, the ability to make peace was historically as highly prized as leadership in war, and was often conducted by a separate peace chief, who stepped in when the time for the warriors had passed. For centuries, tribes created alliances with each other that spanned hundreds of miles.
  4. Have each student fill out the first two columns of the "K-W-L Chart" worksheet.
  5. Distribute a copy of the "Brainstorm Boxes" worksheet to each student.
  6. Ask the students to share what they think the term "conflict" means and give examples of conflicts. Record the group ideas on chart paper.
  7. After discussing the student ideas, have the students fill out the first box on their “Brainstorm Boxes” worksheet.
  8. Guide the students through a comparison of their definition with the one in the dictionary.
  9. In small groups, have the students discuss what they know about the term “negotiation.” Have them record their thoughts on chart paper and then use the ideas to fill out the second “Brainstorm Boxes” box using “negotiation” as the center.
  10. As a class, compare the group ideas about negotiation with the definition in the dictionary.
  11. In small groups, have the students discuss what they know about the term “treaty.” Have them record their thoughts on chart paper and then use those ideas to fill out the third box on the “Brainstorm Boxes” worksheet with “treaty” at the center.
  12. As a class, compare the small group ideas about “treaties” with the definition in the dictionary.

Session 2

  1. Display the “2011 Native American $1 Coin” overhead transparency. Review with 1. the students the material covered in the previous session. Have a few students share what they wrote in their Brainstorm Boxes.
  2. Introduce the students to the story about the shared classroom. Explain that the students will be listening to a story in which the characters have a conflict and that they will need to think about how negotiating and making agreements could help resolve the conflict. Read the story from the “A Treaty of Peace” worksheet aloud.
  3. Distribute one “A Treaty of Peace” worksheet to each student. After a class brainstorming discussion, ask the students to discuss what the conflict is in the story. Have them break into small groups and number off. Odd numbers will pretend to be in Ms. Todd’s class and even numbers will represent members of Ms. Goodman’s class. As a class, have them negotiate and decide how the class space will be shared so that both classes can agree on the arrangement. Record their agreements and points of conflict on chart paper.
  4. Have each group complete the “A Treaty of Peace” worksheet and list the points that each side agrees to. Then have each student sign the treaty.
  5. Have one member of each group read their completed treaty and briefly describe how they reached an agreement on the points.
  6. Post the treaties around the room.
  7. Have each student complete the last column of the K-W-L worksheet.

Differentiated Learning Options

  • Model the process for students who have difficulty.
  • Provide "Brainstorm Boxes" handouts that have sentence starters filled in.

Enrichments/Extensions

  • Have students write treaties that might help resolve a common problem at school or at home.
  • Have students research treaties with Native American tribes.

Use the students’ class participation, worksheets, and final products to evaluate whether they have met the lesson objectives.

There are no related resources for this lesson plan.

This lesson plan is not associated with any Common Core Standards.

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Culture and Cultural Diversity
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • assist learners to understand and apply the concept of culture as an integrated whole that governs the functions and interactions of language, literature, arts, traditions, beliefs, values, and behavior patterns
  • enable learners to analyze and explain how groups, societies, and cultures address human needs and concerns
  • guide learners as they predict how experiences may be interpreted by people from diverse cultural perspectives and frames of reference
  • encourage learners to compare and analyze societal patterns for transmitting and preserving culture while adapting to environmental and social change
  • enable learners to assess the importance of cultural unity and diversity within and across groups
  • have learners interpret patterns of behavior as reflecting values and attitudes which contribute to or pose obstacles to cross-cultural understanding
  • guide learners in constructing reasoned judgments about specific cultural responses to persistent human issues
  • have learners explain and apply ideas, theories, and modes of inquiry drawn from anthropology and sociology in the examination of persistent issues and social problems

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Time, Continuity, and Change
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • assist learners to understand that historical knowledge and the concept of time are socially influenced constructions that lead historians to be selective in the questions they seek to answer and the evidence they use
  • help learners apply key concepts such as time, chronology, causality, change, conflict, and complexity to explain, analyze, and show connections among patterns of historical change and continuity
  • enable learners to identify and describe significant historical periods and patterns of change within and across cultures, including but not limited to, the development of ancient cultures and civilizations, the emergence of religious belief systems, the rise of nation-states, and social, economic, and political revolutions
  • guide learners in using such processes of critical historical inquiry to reconstruct and interpret the past, such as using a variety of sources and checking their credibility, validating and weighing evidence for claims, searching for causality, and distinguishing between events and developments that are significant and those that are inconsequential
  • provide learners with opportunities to investigate, interpret, and analyze multiple historical and contemporary viewpoints within and across cultures related to important events, recurring dilemmas, and persistent issues, while employing empathy, skepticism, and critical judgment; and enable learners to apply ideas, theories, and modes of historical inquiry to analyze historical and contemporary developments, and to inform and evaluate actions concerning public policy issues.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Use of Spoken, Written, and Visual Language
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Applying Strategies to Writing
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Effective Communication
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes.

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: People, Places, and Environment
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • Enable learners to use, interpret, and distinguish various representations of Earth such as maps, globes, and photographs, and to use appropriate geographic tools
  • Encourage learners to construct, use, and refine maps and mental maps, calculate distance, scale, area, and density, and organize information about people, places, regions, and environments in a spatial context
  • Help learners to locate, distinguish, and describe the relationships among varying regional and global patterns of physical systems such as landforms, climate, and natural resources, and explain changes in the physical systems
  • Guide learners in exploring characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth’s surface
  • Have learners describe how people create places that reflect culture, human needs, current values and ideals, and government policies
  • Provide opportunities for learners to examine, interpret, and analyze interactions of human beings and their physical environments, and to observe and analyze social and economic effects of environmental changes, both positive and negative
  • Challenge learners to consider, compare, and evaluate existing uses of resources and land in communities, regions, countries, and the world
  • Direct learners to explore ways in which Earth’s physical features have changed over time, and describe and assess ways historical events have influenced and been influenced by physical and human geographic features

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