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Roots of American Diplomacy

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Summary

Students will understand the historical significance of the Iroquois Confederacy by examining Iroquois efforts to secure peace with other Native American peoples through diplomatic relations. Students will demonstrate this understanding through completion of a concept map on diplomacy, a writing assignment, and a skit presented to the class.

Coin Type(s)

  • Dollar

Coin Program(s)

  • Native American $1 Coin

Objectives

  • Students will understand the historical significance of the Iroquois Confederacy by examining Iroquois efforts to secure peace with other Native American peoples through diplomatic relations.
  • Students will demonstrate this understanding through completion of a concept map on diplomacy, a writing assignment, and a skit presented to the class.

Major Subject Area Connections

  • Language Arts
  • Social Studies

Minor/supporting Subject Area Connections

  • Drama

Grades

  • Seventh grade
  • Eighth grade

Class Time

Sessions: Nine
Session Length: 60 minutes
Total Length: 151-500 minutes

Groupings

  • Whole group
  • Small groups
  • Pairs
  • Individual work

Background Knowledge

Students should have a basic knowledge of:

  • The importance of storytelling and myths in Native American culture
  • The role of diplomacy in current events
  • Structure of an essay
  • The definition of “conflict”

Terms and Concepts

  • Obverse
  • Reverse
  • Longhouse
  • Haudenosaunee
  • League of Five Nations
  • Peacemaker
  • Great Tree of Peace
  • Diplomacy

Materials

  • 1 overhead projector or computer and LCD projector
  • 1 overhead transparency or computer graphic of each of the following:
    • “2010 Native American $1 Coin” page
    • “Diplomacy Concept Map”
    • “Diplomacy Rubric”
  • Copies of the following (one for each student):
    • “Diplomacy Concept Map”
    • “Reading Guide”
    • “Diplomacy Rubric”
  • Copy of the Resource Guide (available at www.usmint.gov/kids)
  • Varied reading materials including textbooks, media materials, and bookmarked Internet sites about the Iroquois legend of the Peacemaker and the Iroquois Confederacy, such as:

Preparations

  • Make overhead transparencies or computer images of the following:
    • “2010 Native American $1 Coin” page
    • “Diplomacy Concept Map”
    • “Diplomacy Rubric”
  • Make copies of the following:
    • “Diplomacy Concept Map” (1 per student)
    • “Reading Guide” (1 per student)
    • “Diplomacy Rubric” (1 per student)
  • Locate appropriate texts that provide information on the Iroquois Confederacy and the Iroquois legend of the Peacemaker (see examples under “Materials”).
  • Arrange to use the computer lab or computer access for one class period (optional).
  • Bookmark Internet sites that have information on the Iroquois Confederacy, the Iroquois legend of the Peacemaker, or related topics (see examples under “Materials”).

Worksheets and Files

Lesson plan, worksheet(s), and rubric (if any) at www.usmint.gov/kids/teachers/lessonPlans/pdf/129.pdf.

Session 1

  1. Hold a class discussion on conflict to build an understanding of the word. Have the students work with a partner to brainstorm the types of conflicts found in literature and life. Point out that conflict can be found in many places including homes, schools, and communities.
  2. Point out that the resolution of conflict can be positive. Ask the students to write about a time when a conflict was successfully resolved. It might be helpful to suggest that students consider conflict they have read about in fiction or non-fiction works, experienced, or seen.
  3. Allow students to share their writings with a partner, small group, or the class and to discuss what made the conflict resolution successful.
  4. Arrange the class into groups of four. Have each group create a chart of the skills and behaviors necessary for successful conflict resolution. Have each group share its chart with the class. Draft a class T-chart. In one column, list ways to positively resolve conflict. In the other, list the skills and behaviors that lead to these peaceful resolutions.
  5. Introduce the word “diplomacy” and explain that many of the skills and behaviors found on the class chart are necessary elements of diplomacy.
  6. Describe the Native American $1 Coin Program.
  7. Display the “2010 Native American $1 Coin” page. Identify the people on the coin and ask what anyone knows about the Iroquois.
  8. Provide background on the Iroquois by reading or telling a story or showing a video about the Iroquois. Point out the various actions and beliefs that led to conflict among various Native American people. Students should conclude that life was dangerous and difficult for the Iroquois before the Iroquois Confederacy was formed.

Session 2

  1. Ask the students to consider the methods of conflict resolution they discussed during session 1 and determine which of those might have worked for the Iroquois. Have the students brainstorm other ways they could have resolved the conflicts faced by the Iroquois.
  2. Review the definition of “diplomacy” discussed in session 1.
  3. Distribute the “Diplomacy Concept Map” and display the screen version for the class to see. Provide a description of what diplomacy is and have students work with a partner to form a definition using teacher input, student brainstorming, and prior knowledge, text, and dictionaries.
  4. Discuss definitions and agree on a class definition to be recorded in the center of the concept map.
  5. Lead the class in completing the section titled “Essential Characteristics” on the “Diplomacy Concept Map.” Allow partners to complete the section entitled “Detrimental Behaviors.” Discuss.
  6. Have students predict the challenges the Iroquois might have faced in trying to form the Iroquois Confederacy to resolve the conflicts they faced.

Session 3

  1. Review the “Diplomacy Concept Map” started in previous class.
  2. Distribute a “Reading Guide” to each student.
  3. Assign previously identified readings on the Iroquois Confederacy and/or legend of the Peacemaker. While reading, each student should complete the section of the concept map entitled “Examples from the Iroquois” and answer the questions on the reading guide. If different reading materials are assigned, inform the students that they may or may not be able to find information on all of the questions in their reading.
  4. Allow small groups to share their findings.
  5. Distribute a “Diplomacy Rubric” to each student. Review the rubric so all students have a clear understanding of the expectations for the writing product.
  6. Make a writing assignment that is appropriate for your students. Possible assignments include the following:
    • A five-paragraph essay that answers all the questions in the reading guide.
    • A three-paragraph essay that answers one of the questions in the guide.
  7. Use the remainder of the class period for students to research or begin drafting their essays.

Session 4

  1. Assign the students to small groups and have the students share their writing with the group members.
  2. Have the small groups create a skit that dramatizes what they’ve learned about the Iroquois Confederacy. The skits can focus on the answer to one or more of the questions addressed in the essay. For presentation ideas, suggest scenarios such as an interview, an Iroquois press conference, a meeting of the Confederacy leaders, or an Iroquois attempt to get other tribes to stop fighting and join their new Confederacy.
  3. Distribute and review the “Diplomacy Rubric.”
  4. Allow sufficient time for the students to prepare and present their skits.

Differentiated Learning Options

  • Have student partners read the reading assignment.
  • Allow extended time for research and/or writing.
  • Match text reading levels with the reading abilities of students.
  • Adjust writing assignment to meet individual abilities.
  • Allow students to dictate to a scribe.

Enrichments/Extensions

  • Have students do further research on the Iroquois Confederacy and explore the symbolism found in the Great Tree of Peace.
  • Have students read about the previously released “Three Sisters of Agriculture” coin at http://www.usmint.gov/kids/coinNews/nativeAmerican/.
  • Have students research the role that the Iroquois Confederacy played in the development of the United States Constitution.
  • Use the essays, the concept maps, and the group presentations to evaluate whether each student has met the objective of the lesson.
  • Use the rubric to evaluate the essay and skit.
There are no related resources for this lesson plan.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.7 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • SL.7.4. Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with pertinent descriptions, facts, details, and examples; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.
  • SL.7.5. Include multimedia components and visual displays in presentations to clarify claims and findings and emphasize salient points.
  • SL.7.6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 7 Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.)

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.7 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.7.7. Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions for further research and investigation.
  • W.7.8. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
  • W.7.9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    • Apply grade 7 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal of a time, place, or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history”).
    • Apply grade 7 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g. “Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims”).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.8 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.8.7. Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.
  • W.8.8. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
  • W.8.9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    • Apply grade 8 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character types from myths, traditional stories, or religious works such as the Bible, including describing how the material is rendered new”).
    • Apply grade 8 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced”).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.7 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
Standards:

  • SL.7.1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    • Come to discussions prepared, having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
    • Follow rules for collegial discussions, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
    • Pose questions that elicit elaboration and respond to others’ questions and comments with relevant observations and ideas that bring the discussion back on topic as needed.
    • Acknowledge new information expressed by others and, when warranted, modify their own views.
  • SL.7.2. Analyze the main ideas and supporting details presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and explain how the ideas clarify a topic, text, or issue under study.
  • SL.7.3. Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.8 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
Standards:

  • SL.8.1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 8 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    • Come to discussions prepared having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
    • Follow rules for collegial discussions and decision-making, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
    • Pose questions that connect the ideas of several speakers and respond to others’ questions and comments with relevant evidence, observations, and ideas.
    • Acknowledge new information expressed by others, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views in light of the evidence presented.
  • SL.8.2. Analyze the purpose of information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and evaluate the motives (e.g., social, commercial, political) behind its presentation.
  • SL.8.3. Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and relevance and sufficiency of the evidence and identifying when irrelevant evidence is introduced.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.7 Language
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.7.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Explain the function of phrases and clauses in general and their function in specific sentences.
    • Choose among simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences to signal differing relationships among ideas.
    • Place phrases and clauses within a sentence, recognizing and correcting misplaced and dangling modifiers.
  • L.7.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Use a comma to separate coordinate adjectives (e.g., It was a fascinating, enjoyable movie but not He wore an old[,] green shirt).
    • Spell correctly.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.8 Language
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.8.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Explain the function of verbals (gerunds, participles, infinitives) in general and their function in particular sentences.
    • Form and use verbs in the active and passive voice.
    • Form and use verbs in the indicative, imperative, interrogative, conditional, and subjunctive mood.
    • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood.
  • L.8.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Use punctuation (comma, ellipsis, dash) to indicate a pause or break.
    • Use an ellipsis to indicate an omission.
    • Spell correctly.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.7 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RI.7.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone.
  • RI.7.5. Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text, including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to the development of the ideas.
  • RI.7.6. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author distinguishes his or her position from that of others.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.7 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RI.7.7. Compare and contrast a text to an audio, video, or multimedia version of the text, analyzing each medium’s portrayal of the subject (e.g., how the delivery of a speech affects the impact of the words).
  • RI.7.8. Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims.
  • RI.7.9. Analyze how two or more authors writing about the same topic shape their presentations of key information by emphasizing different evidence or advancing different interpretations of facts.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.7 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RI.7.1. Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
  • RI.7.2. Determine two or more central ideas in a text and analyze their development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text.
  • RI.7.3. Analyze the interactions between individuals, events, and ideas in a text (e.g., how ideas influence individuals or events, or how individuals influence ideas or events).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.8 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RI.8.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts.
  • RI.8.5. Analyze in detail the structure of a specific paragraph in a text, including the role of particular sentences in developing and refining a key concept.
  • RI.8.6. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author acknowledges and responds to conflicting evidence or viewpoints.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.8 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RI.8.7. Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using different mediums (e.g., print or digital text, video, multimedia) to present a particular topic or idea.
  • RI.8.8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced.
  • RI.8.9. Analyze a case in which two or more texts provide conflicting information on the same topic and identify where the texts disagree on matters of fact or interpretation.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.8 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RI.8.1. Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
  • RI.8.2. Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to supporting ideas; provide an objective summary of the text.
  • RI.8.3. Analyze how a text makes connections among and distinctions between individuals, ideas, or events (e.g., through comparisons, analogies, or categories).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Applying Knowledge to Language
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions (e.g., spelling and punctuation), media techniques, figurative language, and genre to create, critique, and discuss print and nonprint texts.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Applying Strategies to Text
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students apply a wide range of strategies to comprehend, interpret, evaluate, and appreciate texts. They draw on their prior experience, their interactions with other readers and writers, their knowledge of word meaning and of other texts, their word identification strategies, and their understanding of textual features (e.g., sound–letter correspondence, sentence structure, context, graphics).

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Culture and Cultural Diversity
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • assist learners to understand and apply the concept of culture as an integrated whole that governs the functions and interactions of language, literature, arts, traditions, beliefs, values, and behavior patterns
  • enable learners to analyze and explain how groups, societies, and cultures address human needs and concerns
  • guide learners as they predict how experiences may be interpreted by people from diverse cultural perspectives and frames of reference
  • encourage learners to compare and analyze societal patterns for transmitting and preserving culture while adapting to environmental and social change
  • enable learners to assess the importance of cultural unity and diversity within and across groups
  • have learners interpret patterns of behavior as reflecting values and attitudes which contribute to or pose obstacles to cross-cultural understanding
  • guide learners in constructing reasoned judgments about specific cultural responses to persistent human issues
  • have learners explain and apply ideas, theories, and modes of inquiry drawn from anthropology and sociology in the examination of persistent issues and social problems

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Time, Continuity, and Change
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • assist learners to understand that historical knowledge and the concept of time are socially influenced constructions that lead historians to be selective in the questions they seek to answer and the evidence they use
  • help learners apply key concepts such as time, chronology, causality, change, conflict, and complexity to explain, analyze, and show connections among patterns of historical change and continuity
  • enable learners to identify and describe significant historical periods and patterns of change within and across cultures, including but not limited to, the development of ancient cultures and civilizations, the emergence of religious belief systems, the rise of nation-states, and social, economic, and political revolutions
  • guide learners in using such processes of critical historical inquiry to reconstruct and interpret the past, such as using a variety of sources and checking their credibility, validating and weighing evidence for claims, searching for causality, and distinguishing between events and developments that are significant and those that are inconsequential
  • provide learners with opportunities to investigate, interpret, and analyze multiple historical and contemporary viewpoints within and across cultures related to important events, recurring dilemmas, and persistent issues, while employing empathy, skepticism, and critical judgment; and enable learners to apply ideas, theories, and modes of historical inquiry to analyze historical and contemporary developments, and to inform and evaluate actions concerning public policy issues.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Use of Spoken, Written, and Visual Language
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Research
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideas and questions, and by posing problems. They gather, evaluate, and synthesize data from a variety of sources (e.g., print and nonprint texts, artifacts, people) to communicate their discoveries in ways that suit their purpose and audience. 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Applying Strategies to Writing
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Effective Communication
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes.

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: People, Places, and Environment
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • Enable learners to use, interpret, and distinguish various representations of Earth such as maps, globes, and photographs, and to use appropriate geographic tools
  • Encourage learners to construct, use, and refine maps and mental maps, calculate distance, scale, area, and density, and organize information about people, places, regions, and environments in a spatial context
  • Help learners to locate, distinguish, and describe the relationships among varying regional and global patterns of physical systems such as landforms, climate, and natural resources, and explain changes in the physical systems
  • Guide learners in exploring characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth’s surface
  • Have learners describe how people create places that reflect culture, human needs, current values and ideals, and government policies
  • Provide opportunities for learners to examine, interpret, and analyze interactions of human beings and their physical environments, and to observe and analyze social and economic effects of environmental changes, both positive and negative
  • Challenge learners to consider, compare, and evaluate existing uses of resources and land in communities, regions, countries, and the world
  • Direct learners to explore ways in which Earth’s physical features have changed over time, and describe and assess ways historical events have influenced and been influenced by physical and human geographic features