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How Does a Garden Grow?

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Summary

Students will identify and sequence the steps involved in planting a garden.

Coin Type(s)

  • Dollar

Coin Program(s)

  • Native American $1 Coin

Objectives

Students will identify and sequence the steps involved in planting a garden.

Major Subject Area Connections

  • Science
  • Social Studies

Grades

  • Kindergarten
  • First grade

Class Time

Sessions: Two
Session Length: 20-30 minutes
Total Length: 46-90 minutes

Groupings

  • Whole group
  • Individual work

Background Knowledge

Students should have a basic knowledge of:

  • Sequence
  • Plants and flowers

Terms and Concepts

  • Quarter
  • Obverse (front)
  • Reverse (back)
  • Companion planting
  • Agriculture

Materials

  • 1 overhead projector (optional)
  • 1 overhead transparency of each of the following:
    • “2009 Native American $1 Coin” page
    • “Plants at Work” worksheet
    • “1, 2, 3, Grow” worksheet
  • 1 copy of each of the following:
    • “Plants at Work” worksheet
    • “1, 2, 3, Grow” worksheet
  • 1 copy of an age-appropriate text that gives information about agriculture and companion planting, such as:
    • The Reason for a Flower by Ruth Heller
    • Pick, Pull, Snap! Where Once a Flower Bloomed by Lola M. Schaefer
    • How Flowers Grow by Emma Helbrough
    • Zinnia’s Flower Garden by Monica Wellington
    • A Flower Grows by Ken Robbins
    • From Seed to Plant by Gail Gibbons
  • 1 copy of an age-appropriate text that gives information about gardening, such as:
    • The Reason for a Flower by Ruth Heller
    • Pick, Pull, Snap! Where Once a Flower Bloomed by Lola M. Schaefer
    • How Flowers Grow by Emma Helbrough
    • Zinnia’s Flower Garden by Monica Wellington
    • A Flower Grows by Ken Robbins
    • From Seed to Plant by Gail Gibbons
  • Chart paper
  • Markers, pencils, crayons
  • Scissors
  • Construction paper
  • Glue

Preparations

  • Make an overhead transparency (or photocopy) of each of the following:
    • “2009 Native American $1 Coin” worksheet
    • “Plants at Work” worksheet
    • “1, 2, 3, Grow!” worksheet
  • Make copies of each of the following:
    • “Plants at Work” worksheet (1 per student)
    • “1, 2, 3, Grow!” worksheet (1 per student)
  • Locate a text that gives information about companion planting and agriculture (see examples under “Materials”).
  • Locate a text that gives information about gardening (see examples under “Materials”).

Worksheets and Files

Lesson plan, worksheet(s), and rubric (if any) at www.usmint.gov/kids/teachers/lessonPlans/pdf/130.pdf.

Session 1

  1. Describe the Native American $1 Coin Program for background information. The program is described at www.usmint.gov/kids under “The Coins Are Coming” in the Coin News area.
  2. Display the “Plants at Work” transparency. Ask the students if they know what the word “agriculture” means. Tell the students that agriculture refers to the growing of plants and the raising of animals to produce or make goods. Record the definition of “agriculture” on chart paper.
  3. Display the “2009 Native American $1 Coin” overhead transparency. Tell the students that the back of a coin is called the reverse, and “obverse” is another name for the front. With the students, examine the coin design. Tell the students that the image on the coin reverse represents the “Three Sisters of Agriculture.” Explain that Three Sisters agriculture is a special type of planting where corn, beans, and squash all work together. Ask the students to provide examples of times when they help one another to complete a task. Record the student responses on chart paper.
  4. Introduce the students to the selected text about agriculture and companion planting. As a group, preview the text and illustrations to generate observations about agriculture and companion planting. Read the selected text to the class and attend to any unfamiliar vocabulary.
  5. Explain that the three crops of the Three Sisters of Agriculture help each other out in different ways. The corn gives the beans a support grow on, the squash grows along the ground and provides shade to help stop weeds from growing and keep bugs from attacking the plants, and the beans give the soil nutrients that help the other plants to grow better. As you explain the relationships and different jobs of each of the plants, point out the corn, squash, and beans in the transparency image.
  6. Distribute the “Plants at Work” worksheet to students. Explain that students will use what they just learned to complete the sentence on the worksheet. Model the responses on the transparency and then allow the students time to trace the words on the page. If time permits, they may color the coin image at the bottom.

Session 2

  1. Review the information from the previous lesson about agriculture and companion planting.
  2. Display and review the chart paper with the definition of agriculture and examples of helping that the students provided in the previous session.
  3. Introduce the students to the selected text about gardening. As a group, preview the text and illustrations to generate observations about agriculture and companion planting. Read the selected text aloud and attend to any unfamiliar vocabulary.
  4. Display the “1, 2, 3, Grow!” overhead transparency. Explain to the students that they will be “planting” a garden by coloring, cutting, and pasting each of the steps to planting a garden onto construction paper. Explain to the students that the steps shown apply to a “Three Sisters of Agriculture” garden. The steps are given out of order; the students will need to paste them in the correct order.
  5. Review with the students the plants that compose the “Three Sisters of Agriculture.” Answer any student questions at this time.
  6. Distribute a “1, 2, 3, Grow!” worksheet, construction paper, glue, scissors, and crayons to each of the students. Allow the students time to complete the activity.
  7. Display the completed “gardens” around the classroom.

Differentiated Learning Options

  • Provide pre-cut and labeled pieces for students to glue to the construction paper.
  • Allow students to work with a partner.

Enrichments/Extensions

  • Have students visit a local nature center, farm, or nursery and record their observations.
  • Have students create a class “Three Sisters of Agriculture” garden on the school grounds.
  • Bring in examples of corn, beans, and squash for the students.

Use the students’ class participation, worksheets, and “gardens” to evaluate whether they have met the lesson objectives.

There are no related resources for this lesson plan.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.K Language
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.K.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Print many upper- and lowercase letters.
    • Use frequently occurring nouns and verbs.
    • Form regular plural nouns orally by adding /s/ or /es/ (e.g., dog, dogs; wish, wishes).
    • Understand and use question words (interrogatives) (e.g., who, what, where, when, why, how).
    • Use the most frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., to, from, in, out, on, off, for, of, by, with).
    • Produce and expand complete sentences in shared language activities.
  • L.K.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Capitalize the first word in a sentence and the pronoun I.
    • Recognize and name end punctuation.
    • Write a letter or letters for most consonant and short-vowel sounds (phonemes).
    • Spell simple words phonetically, drawing on knowledge of sound-letter relationships.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.1 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RI.1.1. Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
  • RI.1.2. Identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.
  • RI.1.3. Describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.1 Language
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.1.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Print all upper- and lowercase letters.
    • Use common, proper, and possessive nouns.
    • Use singular and plural nouns with matching verbs in basic sentences (e.g., He hops; We hop).
    • Use personal, possessive, and indefinite pronouns (e.g., I, me, my; they, them, their, anyone, everything).
    • Use verbs to convey a sense of past, present, and future (e.g., Yesterday I walked home; Today I walk home; Tomorrow I will walk home).
    • Use frequently occurring adjectives.
    • Use frequently occurring conjunctions (e.g., and, but, or, so, because).
    • Use determiners (e.g., articles, demonstratives).
    • Use frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., during, beyond, toward).
    • Produce and expand complete simple and compound declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences in response to prompts.
  • L.1.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Capitalize dates and names of people.
    • Use end punctuation for sentences.
    • Use commas in dates and to separate single words in a series.
    • Use conventional spelling for words with common spelling patterns and for frequently occurring irregular words.
    • Spell untaught words phonetically, drawing on phonemic awareness and spelling conventions.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.1 Writing
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Production and Distribution of Writing
Standards:

  • W.1.4. begins in grade 3.
  • W.1.5. With guidance and support from adults, focus on a topic, respond to questions and suggestions from peers, and add details to strengthen writing as needed.
  • W.1.6. With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.1 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
Standards:

  • SL.1.1. Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 1 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
    • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
    • Build on others’ talk in conversations by responding to the comments of others through multiple exchanges.
    • Ask questions to clear up any confusion about the topics and texts under discussion.
  • SL.1.2. Ask and answer questions about key details in a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.
  • SL.1.3. Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to gather additional information or clarify something that is not understood.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.K Writing
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Production and Distribution of Writing
Standards:

  • W.K.4. begins in grade 3.
  • W.K.5. With guidance and support from adults, respond to questions and suggestions from peers and add details to strengthen writing as needed.
  • W.K.6. With guidance and support from adults, explore a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.1 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • SL.1.4. Describe people, places, things, and events with relevant details, expressing ideas and feelings clearly.
  • SL.1.5. Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.
  • SL.1.6. Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation. (See grade 1 Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.)

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.1 Writing
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.1.7. Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of “how-to” books on a given topic and use them to write a sequence of instructions).
  • W.1.8. With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
  • W.1.9. begins in grade 4.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.K Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
Standards:

  • SL.K.1. Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about kindergarten topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
    • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others and taking turns speaking about the topics and texts under discussion).
    • Continue a conversation through multiple exchanges.
  • SL.K.2. Confirm understanding of a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media by asking and answering questions about key details and requesting clarification if something is not understood.
  • SL.K.3. Ask and answer questions in order to seek help, get information, or clarify something that is not understood.
  • SL.K.4. Describe familiar people, places, things, and events and, with prompting and support, provide additional detail.
  • SL.K.5. Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions as desired to provide additional detail.
  • SL.K.6. Speak audibly and express thoughts, feelings, and ideas clearly.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.K Writing
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.K.7. Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of books by a favorite author and express opinions about them).
  • W.K.8. With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
  • W.K.9. begins in grade 4.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.K Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RI.K.4. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text.
  • RI.K.5. Identify the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book.
  • RI.K.6. Name the author and illustrator of a text and define the role of each in presenting the ideas or information in a text.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.K Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RI.K.7. With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the text in which they appear (e.g., what person, place, thing, or idea in the text an illustration depicts).
  • RI.K.8. With prompting and support, identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text.
  • RI.K.9. With prompting and support, identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic (e.g., in illustrations, descriptions, or procedures).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.K Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RI.K.1. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
  • RI.K.2. With prompting and support, identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.
  • RI.K.3. With prompting and support, describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.1 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RI.1.4. Ask and answer questions to help determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases in a text.
  • RI.1.5. Know and use various text features (e.g., headings, tables of contents, glossaries, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text.
  • RI.1.6. Distinguish between information provided by pictures or other illustrations and information provided by the words in a text.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.1 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade K
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RI.1.7. Use the illustrations and details in a text to describe its key ideas.
  • RI.1.8. Identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text.
  • RI.1.9. Identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic (e.g., in illustrations, descriptions, or procedures).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Literature
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students read a wide range of literature from many periods in many genres to build an understanding of the many dimensions (e.g., philosophical, ethical, aesthetic) of human experience. 

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Culture and Cultural Diversity
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • assist learners to understand and apply the concept of culture as an integrated whole that governs the functions and interactions of language, literature, arts, traditions, beliefs, values, and behavior patterns
  • enable learners to analyze and explain how groups, societies, and cultures address human needs and concerns
  • guide learners as they predict how experiences may be interpreted by people from diverse cultural perspectives and frames of reference
  • encourage learners to compare and analyze societal patterns for transmitting and preserving culture while adapting to environmental and social change
  • enable learners to assess the importance of cultural unity and diversity within and across groups
  • have learners interpret patterns of behavior as reflecting values and attitudes which contribute to or pose obstacles to cross-cultural understanding
  • guide learners in constructing reasoned judgments about specific cultural responses to persistent human issues
  • have learners explain and apply ideas, theories, and modes of inquiry drawn from anthropology and sociology in the examination of persistent issues and social problems

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Time, Continuity, and Change
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • assist learners to understand that historical knowledge and the concept of time are socially influenced constructions that lead historians to be selective in the questions they seek to answer and the evidence they use
  • help learners apply key concepts such as time, chronology, causality, change, conflict, and complexity to explain, analyze, and show connections among patterns of historical change and continuity
  • enable learners to identify and describe significant historical periods and patterns of change within and across cultures, including but not limited to, the development of ancient cultures and civilizations, the emergence of religious belief systems, the rise of nation-states, and social, economic, and political revolutions
  • guide learners in using such processes of critical historical inquiry to reconstruct and interpret the past, such as using a variety of sources and checking their credibility, validating and weighing evidence for claims, searching for causality, and distinguishing between events and developments that are significant and those that are inconsequential
  • provide learners with opportunities to investigate, interpret, and analyze multiple historical and contemporary viewpoints within and across cultures related to important events, recurring dilemmas, and persistent issues, while employing empathy, skepticism, and critical judgment; and enable learners to apply ideas, theories, and modes of historical inquiry to analyze historical and contemporary developments, and to inform and evaluate actions concerning public policy issues.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Use of Spoken, Written, and Visual Language
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Effective Communication
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes.

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: People, Places, and Environment
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • Enable learners to use, interpret, and distinguish various representations of Earth such as maps, globes, and photographs, and to use appropriate geographic tools
  • Encourage learners to construct, use, and refine maps and mental maps, calculate distance, scale, area, and density, and organize information about people, places, regions, and environments in a spatial context
  • Help learners to locate, distinguish, and describe the relationships among varying regional and global patterns of physical systems such as landforms, climate, and natural resources, and explain changes in the physical systems
  • Guide learners in exploring characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth’s surface
  • Have learners describe how people create places that reflect culture, human needs, current values and ideals, and government policies
  • Provide opportunities for learners to examine, interpret, and analyze interactions of human beings and their physical environments, and to observe and analyze social and economic effects of environmental changes, both positive and negative
  • Challenge learners to consider, compare, and evaluate existing uses of resources and land in communities, regions, countries, and the world
  • Direct learners to explore ways in which Earth’s physical features have changed over time, and describe and assess ways historical events have influenced and been influenced by physical and human geographic features