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Let's Do a Biography

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Summary

Students will understand how to read and create a timeline. Students will correctly sequence a series of events. Students will examine the lives of people who have influenced the District of Columbia.

Coin Type(s)

  • Quarter

Coin Program(s)

  • DC and Territory Quarters

Objectives

  • Students will understand how to read and create a timeline.
  • Students will correctly sequence a series of events.
  • Students will examine the lives of people who have influenced the District of Columbia.

Major Subject Area Connections

  • Language Arts
  • Social Studies

Minor/supporting Subject Area Connections

  • Music

Grades

  • Second grade
  • Third grade

Class Time

Sessions: Three
Session Length: 30-45 minutes
Total Length: 121-150 minutes

Groupings

  • Whole group
  • Small groups
  • Pairs
  • Individual work

Background Knowledge

Students should have a basic knowledge of:

  • Sequencing
  • Compare and contrast

Terms and Concepts

  • Quarter
  • Obverse (front)
  • Reverse (back)
  • Capital
  • Jazz
  • Genre
  • Composer
  • Origins
  • American Culture
  • Timeline
  • Biography

Materials

  • 1 overhead projector (optional)
  • 1 overhead transparency of each of the following:
    • “District of Columbia Quarter Reverse” page
    • “Where In Time” worksheet
    • “Tell Me About Yourself” worksheet
  • Copies of each of the following:
  • “Where In Time” worksheet
  • “Tell Me About Yourself” worksheet
  • “Timeline Outline” worksheet
  • 1 class map of the United States
  • 1 copy of an age-appropriate text that gives information about Duke Ellington, such as:
    • Duke Ellington: The Piano Prince and His Orchestra by Andrea Pinkney
    • Duke Ellington (Getting to Know the World’s Greatest Composers) by Mike Venezia
    • Duke Ellington by Richard Terrill
  • Biographies of famous Washingtonians
  • Computers with Internet access
  • Chart paper
  • Markers
  • Recordings of Duke Ellington compositions
  • Pencils and paper
  • White construction paper (11x14)
  • Colored pencils

Preparations

  • Make an overhead transparency (or photocopy) of each of the following:
    • “District of Columbia Quarter Reverse” page
    • “Where In Time” worksheet
    • “Tell Me About Yourself” worksheet
  • Make copies of each of the following:
    • “Where In Time” worksheet (1 per student)
    • “Tell Me About Yourself” worksheet (1 per student)
    • “Timeline Outline” worksheet (1 per student)
  • Prepare a K-W-L chart called “Duke Ellington.”
  • Locate a text that gives information about Duke Ellington (see examples under “Materials”).
  • Gather recordings of various music compositions featuring Duke Ellington for Session 1.  (Make sure that playing the recordings aligns with laws and school policy.)
  • Create a list of people who have been connected with Washington, D.C. The list could include such people as Pierre L’Enfant, Frederick Douglass, and John Phillip Sousa. You can search for lists online at sites like www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0108620.html and www.soulofamerica.com/index.php?id=7327,0,0,1,0,0.
  • Arrange a time for the students to visit the library in Session 2.
  • Reserve the computer lab for one session.
  • Bookmark Internet sites about people who were born in or had an influence on Washington, D.C.
  • Gather texts about people who influenced Washington, DC, for Session 2. ( Note: this is a good lesson to coordinate with your media and technology specialist and music teacher.)

Worksheets and Files

Lesson plan, worksheet(s), and rubric (if any) at www.usmint.gov/kids/teachers/lessonPlans/pdf/145.pdf.

Session 1

  1. Describe the 50 State Quarters® Program and the District of Columbia and U.S. Territories Quarter Program for background information, if necessary, using the example of your own state’s or territory’s quarter. Then display the “District of Columbia Quarter Reverse” overhead transparency or photocopy. Tell the students that this quarter is part of the District of Columbia and U.S. Territories Quarter Program. Tell the students that the back of a coin is called the reverse, and "Obverse" is another name for the front.
  2. Locate the District of Columbia on a classroom map. Note its position in relation to your school’s location. Tell the students that then District of Columbia is very special to our country because it is the capital of the United States.
  3. Ask the students to examine the coin image and tell you what they know about the image. If necessary, explain to the students that the design features an image of Edward Kennedy “Duke” Ellington seated at a grand piano. Ask the students what  they know about Duke Ellington. Record the student responses in the “K” column of the K-W-L chart.
  4. Ask the students what else they would like to learn about Duke Ellington and record the responses in the “W” portion of the chart.
  5. Ask the students who Duke Ellington was and why they think he is on the District of Columbia quarter. If necessary, tell the students that Duke Ellington was a famous pianist and composer who was born in Washington, D.C., in 1899. Add the definition of “composer” (a person who writes music) to the chart.
  6. Tell the students that Ellington wrote more than 1,000 compositions, including ballet music, film music, orchestral suites, songs, and musicals. He began playing in the genres (a musical genre is a category that has a distinctive style, form, or content) of ragtime and jazz. Write this information under “L” on the chart.
  7. Introduce the students to the selected text about Duke Ellington. As a group, preview the text. Read the selected text to the class and attend to any unfamiliar vocabulary and concepts. During the reading, the students should attend to any clues about Duke Ellington. Chart the students’ ideas in the “L” column of the chart.
  8. After concluding the selected text, review the students’ ideas and add to the “L” column. Explain to the students that they will be doing further research on people who helped influence Washington, D.C.
  9. Ask the students to write a journal entry based on how they feel when they hear a piece of music composed by Duke Ellington. Play a recording of such a piece.

Session 2

  1. Display the “District of Columbia Quarter Reverse” transparency and the K-W-L chart from session 1. As a class, review the material covered.
  2. Ask the students what a timeline is. If necessary, tell the students that timelines show events in the order they happened.
  3. Draw a vertical timeline on a piece of chart paper titled “Class Timeline.” Add the definition of “timeline” to the chart.
  4. End the timeline with the current year and add the year most of your students were born. Ask them to think of major events that have happened in their lives.
  5. As a class, fill in the timeline with events from the student responses. Review the timeline with them. Explain that a timeline can show large or small lengths of time and can include pictures to go with the events.
  6. Display the “Where In Time” overhead transparency and distribute a “Where In Time” worksheet to each student. Discuss the events from Duke Ellington’s life that are listed on the worksheet.
  7. Divide the class into pairs and have them complete the worksheet.
  8. Review the “Where In Time” worksheet, writing the answers on the overhead transparency.
  9. Explain to the students that they will be working in pairs to research and complete a biography page and timeline about a person who was important to the District of Columbia. The person can be someone known for music like Duke Ellington, or for their work in other fields such as government, art, architecture, writing, or sports.
  10. If necessary, remind the students that a biography is a story that provides information about a particular person other than the writer. Add the definition of “biography” to the chart paper.
  11. Display the “Tell Me About Yourself” overhead transparency. Review the categories with the students. Remind the students that they will be choosing a person who was or is famous for how they have helped the District of Columbia. Tell the students they will research the person and then complete the worksheet and a timeline.
  12. Display the list of people from which the students can choose, giving some information about each and the various texts of possibilities for the students to look through.
  13. Distribute a “Tell Me About Yourself” worksheet to each student. Have the students note the name of their selected person on the worksheet.  Collect the worksheets.

Session 3

  1. Redistribute the “Tell Me About Yourself” worksheets. Divide the class into pairs or small groups based on their choices of people to research.
  2. Allow the students time to visit the computer lab, look through texts, and complete their worksheets. Be sure the students are filling in the “dates” column (for the timeline) as they complete their research.
  3. After allowing time for their research, return to the classroom if desired, and distribute a “Timeline Outline” worksheet to each student. Allow the students time to complete the timeline and summary paragraph independently. Be sure the students include the reasons why their Washingtonian was important to the District of Columbia.
  4. Have the students share their paragraphs and timelines with the class.
  5. Collect the students’ worksheets. Display the “Timeline Outline” worksheets in the classroom.

Differentiated Learning Options

  • Allow students to work in small groups to complete the research.
  • Allow students to record the information using a scribe.
  • Allow students to write the events for their timeline on large index cards for sequencing and the presentation.

Enrichments/Extensions

  • Have students create a coin celebrating their selected Washingtonian to accompany their timeline and paragraph.
  • Have students research a musician from another region of the country and complete a Venn Diagram comparing that person's life and musical style to Duke Ellington's.

Analyze the students’ worksheets and presentations to evaluate whether they have met the lesson objectives.

There are no related resources for this lesson plan.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.3 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Text Types and Purposes
Standards:

  • W.3.1. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons.
    • Introduce the topic or text they are writing about, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure that lists reasons.
    • Provide reasons that support the opinion.
    • Use linking words and phrases (e.g., because, therefore, since, for example) to connect opinion and reasons.
    • Provide a concluding statement or section.
  • W.3.2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
    • Introduce a topic and group related information together; include illustrations when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • Develop the topic with facts, definitions, and details.
    • Use linking words and phrases (e.g., also, another, and, more, but) to connect ideas within categories of information.
    • Provide a concluding statement or section.
  • W.3.3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
    • Establish a situation and introduce a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
    • Use dialogue and descriptions of actions, thoughts, and feelings to develop experiences and events or show the response of characters to situations.
    • Use temporal words and phrases to signal event order.
    • Provide a sense of closure.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.2 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Text Types and Purposes
Standards:

  • W.2.1. Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words (e.g., because, and, also) to connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement or section.
  • W.2.2. Write informative/explanatory texts in which they introduce a topic, use facts and definitions to develop points, and provide a concluding statement or section.
  • W.2.3. Write narratives in which they recount a well-elaborated event or short sequence of events, include details to describe actions, thoughts, and feelings, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide a sense of closure.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.2 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RL.2.4. Describe how words and phrases (e.g., regular beats, alliteration, rhymes, repeated lines) supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song.
  • RL.2.5. Describe the overall structure of a story, including describing how the beginning introduces the story and the ending concludes the action.
  • RL.2.6. Acknowledge differences in the points of view of characters, including by speaking in a different voice for each character when reading dialogue aloud.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.2 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RL.2.7. Use information gained from the illustrations and words in a print or digital text to demonstrate understanding of its characters, setting, or plot.
  • RL.2.8. not applicable to literature.
  • RL.2.9. Compare and contrast two or more versions of the same story (e.g., Cinderella stories) by different authors or from different cultures.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.2 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RL.2.1. Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.
  • RL.2.2. Recount stories, including fables and folktales from diverse cultures, and determine their central message, lesson, or moral.
  • RL.2.3. Describe how characters in a story respond to major events and challenges.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.3 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RL.3.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, distinguishing literal from nonliteral language.
  • RL.3.5. Refer to parts of stories, dramas, and poems when writing or speaking about a text, using terms such as chapter, scene, and stanza; describe how each successive part builds on earlier sections.
  • RL.3.6. Distinguish their own point of view from that of the narrator or those of the characters.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.3 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RL.3.1. Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.
  • RL.3.2. Recount stories, including fables, folktales, and myths from diverse cultures; determine the central message, lesson, or moral and explain how it is conveyed through key details in the text.
  • RL.3.3. Describe characters in a story (e.g., their traits, motivations, or feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.3 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RL.3.7. Explain how specific aspects of a text’s illustrations contribute to what is conveyed by the words in a story (e.g., create mood, emphasize aspects of a character or setting).
  • RL.3.8. not applicable to literature.
  • RL.3.9. Compare and contrast the themes, settings, and plots of stories written by the same author about the same or similar characters (e.g., in books from a series).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.2 Language
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.2.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Use collective nouns (e.g., group).
    • Form and use frequently occurring irregular plural nouns (e.g., feet, children, teeth, mice, fish).
    • Use reflexive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves)
    • Form and use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs (e.g., sat, hid, told).
    • Use adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.
    • Produce, expand, and rearrange complete simple and compound sentences (e.g., The boy watched the movie; The little boy watched the movie; The action movie was watched by the little boy).
  • L.2.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Capitalize holidays, product names, and geographic names.
    • Use commas in greetings and closings of letters.
    • Use an apostrophe to form contractions and frequently occurring possessives.
    • Generalize learned spelling patterns when writing words (e.g., cage --> badge; boy --> boil).
    • Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.3 Language
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.3.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Explain the function of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in general and their functions in particular sentences.
    • Form and use regular and irregular plural nouns.
    • Use abstract nouns (e.g., childhood).
    • Form and use regular and irregular verbs.
    • Form and use the simple (e.g., I walked; I walk; I will walk) verb tenses.
    • Ensure subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement.
    • Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.
    • Use coordinating and subordinating conjunctions.
    • Produce simple, compound, and complex sentences.
  • L.3.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Capitalize appropriate words in titles.
    • Use commas in addresses.
    • Use commas and quotation marks in dialogue.
    • Form and use possessives.
    • Use conventional spelling for high-frequency and other studied words and for adding suffixes to base words (e.g., sitting, smiled, cries, happiness).
    • Use spelling patterns and generalizations (e.g., word families, position-based spellings, syllable patterns, ending rules, meaningful word parts) in writing words.
    • Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.2 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
Standards:

  • SL.2.1. Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 2 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
    • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
    • Build on others’ talk in conversations by linking their comments to the remarks of others.
    • Ask for clarification and further explanation as needed about the topics and texts under discussion.
  • SL.2.2. Recount or describe key ideas or details from a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.
  • SL.2.3. Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to clarify comprehension, gather additional information, or deepen understanding of a topic or issue. 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.2 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • SL.2.4. Tell a story or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking audibly in coherent sentences.
  • SL.2.5. Create audio recordings of stories or poems; add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.
  • SL.2.6. Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification. (See grade 2 Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.3 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
Standards:

  • SL.3.1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 3 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    • Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
    • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
    • Ask questions to check understanding of information presented, stay on topic, and link their comments to the remarks of others.
    • Explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.
  • SL.3.2. Determine the main ideas and supporting details of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
  • SL.3.3. Ask and answer questions about information from a speaker, offering appropriate elaboration and detail.
  • SL.3.4. Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking clearly at an understandable pace.
  • SL.3.5. Create engaging audio recordings of stories or poems that demonstrate fluid reading at an understandable pace; add visual displays when appropriate to emphasize or enhance certain facts or details.
  • SL.3.6. Speak in complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification. (See grade 3 Language standards 1 and 3 here for specific expectations.) 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.2 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RI.2.1. Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.
  • RI.2.2. Identify the main topic of a multi-paragraph text as well as the focus of specific paragraphs within the text.
  • RI.2.3. Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text. 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.2 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RI.2.7. Explain how specific images (e.g., a diagram showing how a machine works) contribute to and clarify a text.
  • RI.2.8. Describe how reasons support specific points the author makes in a text.
  • RI.2.9. Compare and contrast the most important points presented by two texts on the same topic.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.2 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RI.2.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 2 topic or subject area.
  • RI.2.5. Know and use various text features (e.g., captions, bold print, subheadings, glossaries, indexes, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text efficiently.
  • RI.2.6. Identify the main purpose of a text, including what the author wants to answer, explain, or describe.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.3 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RI.3.4. Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 3 topic or subject area.
  • RI.3.5. Use text features and search tools (e.g., key words, sidebars, hyperlinks) to locate information relevant to a given topic efficiently.
  • RI.3.6. Distinguish their own point of view from that of the author of a text.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.3 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RI.3.7. Use information gained from illustrations (e.g., maps, photographs) and the words in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text (e.g., where, when, why, and how key events occur).
  • RI.3.8. Describe the logical connection between particular sentences and paragraphs in a text (e.g., comparison, cause/effect, first/second/third in a sequence).
  • RI.3.9. Compare and contrast the most important points and key details presented in two texts on the same topic.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.3 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RI.3.1. Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.
  • RI.3.2. Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea.
  • RI.3.3. Describe the relationship between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.2 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.2.7. Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., read a number of books on a single topic to produce a report; record science observations).
  • W.2.8. Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
  • W.2.9. begins in grade 4.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.3 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.3.7. Conduct short research projects that build knowledge about a topic.
  • W.3.8. Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories.
  • W.3.9. begins in grade 4.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.3 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Production and Distribution of Writing
Standards:

  • W.3.4. With guidance and support from adults, produce writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task and purpose. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3.)
  • W.3.5. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grade 3.)
  • W.3.6. With guidance and support from adults, use technology to produce and publish writing (using keyboarding skills) as well as to interact and collaborate with others.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Applying Knowledge to Language
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions (e.g., spelling and punctuation), media techniques, figurative language, and genre to create, critique, and discuss print and nonprint texts.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Use of Spoken, Written, and Visual Language
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Research
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideas and questions, and by posing problems. They gather, evaluate, and synthesize data from a variety of sources (e.g., print and nonprint texts, artifacts, people) to communicate their discoveries in ways that suit their purpose and audience. 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Applying Strategies to Writing
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes.

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: People, Places, and Environment
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • Enable learners to use, interpret, and distinguish various representations of Earth such as maps, globes, and photographs, and to use appropriate geographic tools
  • Encourage learners to construct, use, and refine maps and mental maps, calculate distance, scale, area, and density, and organize information about people, places, regions, and environments in a spatial context
  • Help learners to locate, distinguish, and describe the relationships among varying regional and global patterns of physical systems such as landforms, climate, and natural resources, and explain changes in the physical systems
  • Guide learners in exploring characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth’s surface
  • Have learners describe how people create places that reflect culture, human needs, current values and ideals, and government policies
  • Provide opportunities for learners to examine, interpret, and analyze interactions of human beings and their physical environments, and to observe and analyze social and economic effects of environmental changes, both positive and negative
  • Challenge learners to consider, compare, and evaluate existing uses of resources and land in communities, regions, countries, and the world
  • Direct learners to explore ways in which Earth’s physical features have changed over time, and describe and assess ways historical events have influenced and been influenced by physical and human geographic features