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Groovy Guam

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Summary

Students will identify geographical features important to a physical map. Students will understand vocabulary and symbols from an ancient culture.

Coin Type(s)

  • Quarter

Coin Program(s)

  • DC and Territory Quarters

Objectives

  • Students will identify geographical features important to a physical map.
  • Students will understand vocabulary and symbols from an ancient culture.

Major Subject Area Connections

  • Language Arts
  • Social Studies

Minor/supporting Subject Area Connections

  • Art

Grades

  • Second grade
  • Third grade

Class Time

Sessions: Three
Session Length: 30-45 minutes
Total Length: 121-150 minutes

Groupings

  • Whole group
  • Small groups
  • Individual work

Background Knowledge

Students should have a basic knowledge of:

  • Communities and cultures
  • Landforms
  • Maps
  • Compass rose
  • Key
  • Compare and contrast

Terms and Concepts

  • Quarter
  • Obverse (front)
  • Reverse (back)
  • Plateau
  • Physical map
  • Political map
  • Island
  • Latte
  • Archipelagos
  • Atoll
  • Micronesia
  • Matua
  • Pedestal
  • Relic
  • Territory

Materials

  • 1 overhead projector (optional)
  • 1 overhead transparency of each of the following:
    • “Guam Quarter Reverse” page
    • “Did You Know?” page
    • “Groovy Guam Map”
    • “Chamorro People and Artifacts” page
  • Copies of each of the following:
    • “Groovy Guam Map” page
    • “Chamorro People and Artifacts” page
    • “Groovy Guam Rubric”
  • 1 class map of the world
  • Political and physical classroom maps of the United States
  • Chart paper
  • Markers
  • Overhead markers
  • Pencils and paper
  • White construction paper (11x14)
  • Tape
  • Cardboard
  • Newspaper
  • Scissors
  • Measuring cups
  • Bowls
  • Flour
  • Salt
  • Water
  • Paint
  • Paint brushes
  • Large spoons
  • Modeling clay (optional)

Preparations

  • Make an overhead transparency (or photocopy) of each of the following:
    • “Guam Quarter Reverse” page"
    • “Did You Know?” page
    • “Groovy Guam Map”
    • “Chamorro People and Artifacts” page
  • Make copies of each of the following:
    • “Groovy Guam Map”
    • “Chamorro People and Artifacts” page (1 per student)
    • “Groovy Guam Rubric” (1 per student)
  • Gather pictures and atlases showing various physical maps for Sessions 2 and 3.
  • Bookmark Internet sites that contain information about Guam and the relics of the ancient Chamorro society, specifically the Latte.
  • Gather materials to make salt dough maps to use in sessions 2 and 3. Modeling clay can be used in place of the salt dough mixture.
  • Gather pictures of Lattes from books and the Internet for Session 1.
  • Gather cardboard pieces (1 per student).
  • Create the T-chart for Session 1.

Worksheets and Files

Lesson plan, worksheet(s), and rubric (if any) at www.usmint.gov/kids/teachers/lessonPlans/pdf/147.pdf.

Session 1

  1. Display the “Guam Quarter Reverse” overhead transparency or photocopy. Tell the students that this quarter is part of the District of Columbia and U.S. Territories Quarters Program. Describe the 50 State Quarters® Program and the District of Columbia and U.S. Territories Quarters Program for background information, if necessary, using the example of your own state’s or territory’s quarter. Tell the students that the back of a coin is called the “reverse,” and “obverse” is another name for the front of a coin.
  2. Locate Guam on a classroom map. Note its position in relation to your school’s location. Using the classroom map, explain to the students that Guam is a United States territory. It is the southernmost island in the Mariana Islands chain. When defining “US territory” (lowercase “t”) for your students, the United States Mint recognizes and uses the Department of the Interior’s definitions found at www.doi.gov/oia/Islandpages/political_types.htm.
  3. Ask the students to examine the image and tell you what they know about this picture. Explain to the students that the image features an outline of the island of Guam with additional designs including the Latte, the Flying Proa, and the inscription “Guåhan Tånó I ManChamorro,” which translates from the Chamorro language (also spelled CHamorro and Chamoru) to “Guam, Land of the Chamorro.”
  4. Focus on the image of the Latte. Display the “Chamorro People and Artifacts” overhead transparency and distribute a “Chamorro People and Artifacts” page to each student.
  5. As a class, read and discuss the information about the Chamorro people and the Lattes.
  6. As a class, discuss why the Lattes were important to the Chamorro people. Explain that Lattes are a relic (a remnant left after decay or disappearance; a trace of some past people, custom, or belief). Latte stones are seen as symbols of Chamorro tradition and strength, and they served as foundation blocks for thatched huts. Today, they are often preserved in parks and found in jungle areas.
  7. Have the students color and label each of the images on the coin.
  8. Explain to the students that they will be learning more about the island of Guam and physical maps in these sessions.
  9. Ask the students to think about the area where they live. On a piece of chart paper, create a T-chart. On one side of the chart, write the name of the area where you live, and “Guam” on the other side. List the following topics along the center line: “location,” “size of community,” “geographic regions,” “climate,” “economy,” “plants and animals,” “media,” “language,” and “other interesting facts.”
  10. As a class, discuss and fill in the side of the T-chart that applies to your area.
  11. Introduce the students to the selected text about Guam. As a group, preview the text. Read the text and attend to any unfamiliar vocabulary and concepts during the reading. Discuss any new facts the students learn about Guam and add them to the T-chart in the appropriate categories. After concluding the text, review the new information about Guam.
  12. Display the “Did You Know?” overhead transparency. Discuss the facts about Guam with the students. Ask the students to identify major differences they see between Guam and the area where they live. Underline the differences in one color.
  13. Discuss any similarities between the two areas and underline them in a different color.
  14. Review and discuss the similarities and differences with the students. Ask the students what piece of information about Guam surprised them the most.

Session 2

  1. Display the “Guam Quarter Reverse” overhead transparency, and the chart paper. Review the information from Session 1.
  2. Ask the students to think of different types of maps used to show information about an area such as a state, country, or continent. The students should respond that there are political and physical maps.
  3. If necessary, tell the students that a political map uses color to show different parts of an area, like states. A physical map shows landforms such as mountains and plateaus. Using classroom maps, show the students an example of each type of map and various landforms.
  4. As a class, discuss why each type of map is important, who may use each type, and when it would be good to have both types of maps.
  5. Ask the students what other components all good maps have. Responses should include a title, compass rose, and a key or legend.
  6. Ask the students which type of map is shown on the Guam quarter reverse. If necessary, explain that the image on the Guam quarter reverse is a physical map. Point out the detail to the students, especially the southern area. Ask the students why they think a physical map was included on the Guam quarter reverse.
  7. Display the “Groovy Guam Information” overhead transparency. Discuss the physical features and their location on the map with the students. Point out the differences between the northern and southern areas of Guam. Discuss what areas would be best for communities and reasons why these areas would be a good choice.
  8. Have various physical maps available. Tell the students they will be creating a physical salt dough map of Guam. As a class, review the recipe explaining that the dough will become the “physical” part of their map. Refer to the chart paper from earlier in the session to remind the students what all good maps should have. Tell the students their maps need to have a title, compass rose, and a key Remind the students that they can use all classroom resources available to them.
  9. Divide the class into small groups. Distribute the “Groovy Guam Physical Map Outline” page. Have the students tape a large piece of construction paper to a piece of cardboard. Using the “Groovy Guam Physical Map Outline” page, have the students either cut out the image or draw an outline of Guam on the paper.
  10. Allow the students time to create their map boards, and Guam outlines.
  11. Collect the students’ worksheets.

Session 3

  1. Distribute the student worksheets and map boards from the previous session.
  2. Display the “Groovy Guam Information” overhead transparency. Have the students get into the small groups from the previous session, and remind the students that they will be creating a physical map of Guam.
  3. Distribute and review the “Groovy Guam Rubric” page to the students. Have the supplies for the salt dough and maps out in a central area. Write the salt dough recipe on the board or overhead. (4 cups flour, 1 cup of salt, 2 cups of water. Mix the ingredients in a bowl with hands or large spoon.)
  4. As a class, review the recipe reminding the students that the dough will become the “physical” part of their map and they can use all classroom resources available to them. Refer to the chart paper from earlier in the session and discuss what three components all good maps should have (title, compass rose, and a key).
  5. As a class, create 4 key symbols and have the students choose 2 to include on their map.
  6. Remind the students that the maps need to be accurate, colorful and have the three components of a good map.
  7. Allow the students sufficient time to create their physical maps of Guam.
  8. Set the finished maps out to dry.
  9. Using a piece of notebook paper, have the students write a summary about the land and people of Guam. The students will use this as a placard for their maps.
  10. Have the students share their paragraphs, maps and lattes with the class. Display in the classroom.

Differentiated Learning Options

  • Allow students to use the “Groovy Guam Physical Map Outline” overhead to create their salt dough maps.
  • Allow students to record the information using a scribe.

Enrichments/Extensions

  • Have students research more about the lattes and create a multimedia presentation to share with the class.
  • Have students create a physical map of their state.
  • Analyze students’ paragraph placards for an understanding of Guam and physical maps.
  • Use the students’ class participation to evaluate whether they have met the lesson objectives.
  • Assess completed maps and lattes.
There are no related resources for this lesson plan.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.3 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Text Types and Purposes
Standards:

  • W.3.1. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons.
    • Introduce the topic or text they are writing about, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure that lists reasons.
    • Provide reasons that support the opinion.
    • Use linking words and phrases (e.g., because, therefore, since, for example) to connect opinion and reasons.
    • Provide a concluding statement or section.
  • W.3.2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
    • Introduce a topic and group related information together; include illustrations when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • Develop the topic with facts, definitions, and details.
    • Use linking words and phrases (e.g., also, another, and, more, but) to connect ideas within categories of information.
    • Provide a concluding statement or section.
  • W.3.3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
    • Establish a situation and introduce a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
    • Use dialogue and descriptions of actions, thoughts, and feelings to develop experiences and events or show the response of characters to situations.
    • Use temporal words and phrases to signal event order.
    • Provide a sense of closure.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.2 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Text Types and Purposes
Standards:

  • W.2.1. Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words (e.g., because, and, also) to connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement or section.
  • W.2.2. Write informative/explanatory texts in which they introduce a topic, use facts and definitions to develop points, and provide a concluding statement or section.
  • W.2.3. Write narratives in which they recount a well-elaborated event or short sequence of events, include details to describe actions, thoughts, and feelings, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide a sense of closure.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.2 Language
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.2.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Use collective nouns (e.g., group).
    • Form and use frequently occurring irregular plural nouns (e.g., feet, children, teeth, mice, fish).
    • Use reflexive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves)
    • Form and use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs (e.g., sat, hid, told).
    • Use adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.
    • Produce, expand, and rearrange complete simple and compound sentences (e.g., The boy watched the movie; The little boy watched the movie; The action movie was watched by the little boy).
  • L.2.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Capitalize holidays, product names, and geographic names.
    • Use commas in greetings and closings of letters.
    • Use an apostrophe to form contractions and frequently occurring possessives.
    • Generalize learned spelling patterns when writing words (e.g., cage --> badge; boy --> boil).
    • Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.3 Language
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.3.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Explain the function of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in general and their functions in particular sentences.
    • Form and use regular and irregular plural nouns.
    • Use abstract nouns (e.g., childhood).
    • Form and use regular and irregular verbs.
    • Form and use the simple (e.g., I walked; I walk; I will walk) verb tenses.
    • Ensure subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement.
    • Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.
    • Use coordinating and subordinating conjunctions.
    • Produce simple, compound, and complex sentences.
  • L.3.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Capitalize appropriate words in titles.
    • Use commas in addresses.
    • Use commas and quotation marks in dialogue.
    • Form and use possessives.
    • Use conventional spelling for high-frequency and other studied words and for adding suffixes to base words (e.g., sitting, smiled, cries, happiness).
    • Use spelling patterns and generalizations (e.g., word families, position-based spellings, syllable patterns, ending rules, meaningful word parts) in writing words.
    • Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.2 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
Standards:

  • SL.2.1. Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 2 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
    • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
    • Build on others’ talk in conversations by linking their comments to the remarks of others.
    • Ask for clarification and further explanation as needed about the topics and texts under discussion.
  • SL.2.2. Recount or describe key ideas or details from a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.
  • SL.2.3. Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to clarify comprehension, gather additional information, or deepen understanding of a topic or issue. 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.2 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • SL.2.4. Tell a story or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking audibly in coherent sentences.
  • SL.2.5. Create audio recordings of stories or poems; add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.
  • SL.2.6. Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification. (See grade 2 Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.3 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
Standards:

  • SL.3.1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 3 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    • Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
    • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
    • Ask questions to check understanding of information presented, stay on topic, and link their comments to the remarks of others.
    • Explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.
  • SL.3.2. Determine the main ideas and supporting details of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
  • SL.3.3. Ask and answer questions about information from a speaker, offering appropriate elaboration and detail.
  • SL.3.4. Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking clearly at an understandable pace.
  • SL.3.5. Create engaging audio recordings of stories or poems that demonstrate fluid reading at an understandable pace; add visual displays when appropriate to emphasize or enhance certain facts or details.
  • SL.3.6. Speak in complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification. (See grade 3 Language standards 1 and 3 here for specific expectations.) 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.2 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RI.2.1. Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.
  • RI.2.2. Identify the main topic of a multi-paragraph text as well as the focus of specific paragraphs within the text.
  • RI.2.3. Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text. 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.2 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RI.2.7. Explain how specific images (e.g., a diagram showing how a machine works) contribute to and clarify a text.
  • RI.2.8. Describe how reasons support specific points the author makes in a text.
  • RI.2.9. Compare and contrast the most important points presented by two texts on the same topic.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.2 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RI.2.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 2 topic or subject area.
  • RI.2.5. Know and use various text features (e.g., captions, bold print, subheadings, glossaries, indexes, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text efficiently.
  • RI.2.6. Identify the main purpose of a text, including what the author wants to answer, explain, or describe.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.3 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RI.3.4. Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 3 topic or subject area.
  • RI.3.5. Use text features and search tools (e.g., key words, sidebars, hyperlinks) to locate information relevant to a given topic efficiently.
  • RI.3.6. Distinguish their own point of view from that of the author of a text.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.3 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RI.3.7. Use information gained from illustrations (e.g., maps, photographs) and the words in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text (e.g., where, when, why, and how key events occur).
  • RI.3.8. Describe the logical connection between particular sentences and paragraphs in a text (e.g., comparison, cause/effect, first/second/third in a sequence).
  • RI.3.9. Compare and contrast the most important points and key details presented in two texts on the same topic.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.3 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RI.3.1. Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.
  • RI.3.2. Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea.
  • RI.3.3. Describe the relationship between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.2 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.2.7. Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., read a number of books on a single topic to produce a report; record science observations).
  • W.2.8. Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
  • W.2.9. begins in grade 4.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.2 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Production and Distribution of Writing
Standards:

  • W.2.4. begins in grade 3.
  • W.2.5. With guidance and support from adults and peers, focus on a topic and strengthen writing as needed by revising and editing.
  • W.2.6. With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.3 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.3.7. Conduct short research projects that build knowledge about a topic.
  • W.3.8. Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories.
  • W.3.9. begins in grade 4.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.3 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Production and Distribution of Writing
Standards:

  • W.3.4. With guidance and support from adults, produce writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task and purpose. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3.)
  • W.3.5. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grade 3.)
  • W.3.6. With guidance and support from adults, use technology to produce and publish writing (using keyboarding skills) as well as to interact and collaborate with others.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Applying Knowledge to Language
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions (e.g., spelling and punctuation), media techniques, figurative language, and genre to create, critique, and discuss print and nonprint texts.

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Disciplinary Standards
Cluster: Geography
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • guide learners in the use of maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • enable learners to use mental maps to organize information about people, places, and environments in a spatial context
  • assist learners to analyze the spatial information about people, places, and environments on Earth’s surface
  • help learners to understand the physical and human characteristics of places
  • assist learners in developing the concept of regions as a means to interpret Earth’s complexity
  • enable learners to understand how culture and experience influence people’s perceptions of places and regions
  • provide learners opportunities to understand and analyze the physical processes that shape Earth’s surface
  • challenge learners to consider the characteristics and spatial distribution of ecosystems on Earth’s surface
  • guide learners in exploring the characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth’s surface
  • help learners to understand and analyze the characteristics, distribution, and complexity of Earth’s cultural mosaics
  • have learners explore the patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth’s surface
  • enable learners to describe the processes, patterns, and functions of human settlement
  • challenge learners to examine how the forces of cooperation and conflict among people influence the division and control of Earth’s surface; help learners see how human actions modify the physical environment
  • enable learners to analyze how physical systems affect human systems
  • challenge learners to examine the changes that occur in the meaning, use, distribution, and importance of resources
  • help learners to apply geography to interpret the past and present and to plan for the future
  • enhance learners’ abilities to ask questions and to acquire, organize, and analyze geographic information so they can answer geographic questions as they engage in the study of substantive geographic content

Discipline: Visual Arts and Music
Domain: K-4 Visual Arts
Cluster: Standard 6: Making connections between visual arts and other disciplines
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students understand and use similarities and differences between characteristics of the visual arts and other arts disciplines
  • Students identify connections between the visual arts and other disciplines in the curriculum

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Culture and Cultural Diversity
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • assist learners to understand and apply the concept of culture as an integrated whole that governs the functions and interactions of language, literature, arts, traditions, beliefs, values, and behavior patterns
  • enable learners to analyze and explain how groups, societies, and cultures address human needs and concerns
  • guide learners as they predict how experiences may be interpreted by people from diverse cultural perspectives and frames of reference
  • encourage learners to compare and analyze societal patterns for transmitting and preserving culture while adapting to environmental and social change
  • enable learners to assess the importance of cultural unity and diversity within and across groups
  • have learners interpret patterns of behavior as reflecting values and attitudes which contribute to or pose obstacles to cross-cultural understanding
  • guide learners in constructing reasoned judgments about specific cultural responses to persistent human issues
  • have learners explain and apply ideas, theories, and modes of inquiry drawn from anthropology and sociology in the examination of persistent issues and social problems

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Time, Continuity, and Change
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • assist learners to understand that historical knowledge and the concept of time are socially influenced constructions that lead historians to be selective in the questions they seek to answer and the evidence they use
  • help learners apply key concepts such as time, chronology, causality, change, conflict, and complexity to explain, analyze, and show connections among patterns of historical change and continuity
  • enable learners to identify and describe significant historical periods and patterns of change within and across cultures, including but not limited to, the development of ancient cultures and civilizations, the emergence of religious belief systems, the rise of nation-states, and social, economic, and political revolutions
  • guide learners in using such processes of critical historical inquiry to reconstruct and interpret the past, such as using a variety of sources and checking their credibility, validating and weighing evidence for claims, searching for causality, and distinguishing between events and developments that are significant and those that are inconsequential
  • provide learners with opportunities to investigate, interpret, and analyze multiple historical and contemporary viewpoints within and across cultures related to important events, recurring dilemmas, and persistent issues, while employing empathy, skepticism, and critical judgment; and enable learners to apply ideas, theories, and modes of historical inquiry to analyze historical and contemporary developments, and to inform and evaluate actions concerning public policy issues.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Use of Spoken, Written, and Visual Language
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).

Discipline: Visual Arts and Music
Domain: K-4 Visual Arts
Cluster: Standard 1: Understanding and applying media, techniques, and processes
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students know the differences between materials, techniques, and processes
  • Students describe how different materials, techniques, and processes cause different responses
  • Students use different media, techniques, and processes to communicate ideas, experiences, and stories
  • Students use art materials and tools in a safe and responsible manner

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Print/Non-print Texts
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students read a wide range of print and non-print texts to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United States and the world; to acquire new information; to respond to the needs and demands of society and the workplace; and for personal fulfillment. Among these texts are fiction and nonfiction, classic and contemporary works. 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Applying Strategies to Writing
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Effective Communication
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes.

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: People, Places, and Environment
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • Enable learners to use, interpret, and distinguish various representations of Earth such as maps, globes, and photographs, and to use appropriate geographic tools
  • Encourage learners to construct, use, and refine maps and mental maps, calculate distance, scale, area, and density, and organize information about people, places, regions, and environments in a spatial context
  • Help learners to locate, distinguish, and describe the relationships among varying regional and global patterns of physical systems such as landforms, climate, and natural resources, and explain changes in the physical systems
  • Guide learners in exploring characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth’s surface
  • Have learners describe how people create places that reflect culture, human needs, current values and ideals, and government policies
  • Provide opportunities for learners to examine, interpret, and analyze interactions of human beings and their physical environments, and to observe and analyze social and economic effects of environmental changes, both positive and negative
  • Challenge learners to consider, compare, and evaluate existing uses of resources and land in communities, regions, countries, and the world
  • Direct learners to explore ways in which Earth’s physical features have changed over time, and describe and assess ways historical events have influenced and been influenced by physical and human geographic features

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