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Which Would You Choose?

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Summary

In small groups, students will locate key data relating to the two types of water vessels used by Lewis and Clark. Students will interpret data and assess which vessel was the most efficient one that Lewis and Clark could have used in their exploration of the Louisiana Territory.

Coin Type(s)

  • Nickel

Coin Program(s)

  • Westward Journey Nickel Series

Objectives

  • In small groups, students will locate key data relating to the two types of water vessels used by Lewis and Clark.
  • Students will interpret data and assess which vessel was the most efficient one that Lewis and Clark could have used in their exploration of the Louisiana Territory.

Major Subject Area Connections

  • Science
  • Social Studies

Minor/supporting Subject Area Connections

  • Language Arts
  • Math
  • Technology

Grades

  • Fourth grade

Class Time

Sessions: Five
Session Length: 45-60 minutes
Total Length: 151-500 minutes

Groupings

  • Whole group
  • Small groups
  • Individual work

Background Knowledge

Students should have a basic knowledge of:

  • Working in cooperative groups
  • Independent research
  • Internet Research Skills
  • Measurement

Terms and Concepts

  • Obverse (front)
  • President Thomas Jefferson
  • Reverse (back)
  • Nickel
  • Lewis and Clark
  • Keelboat
  • Louisiana Purchase
  • Draft
  • Pirogue
  • Canoe
  • Corps of Discovery
  • Capacity

Materials

Preparations

  • Make an overhead transparency of each of the following:
    • Pre-2004 Monticello nickel obverse from the Resource Guide.
    • Pre-2004 Monticello nickel reverse from the Resource Guide.
    • “Louisiana Territory” map from the Resource Guide.
    • Keelboat Nickel obverse from the Resource Guide
  • Locate an appropriate text that provides basic historical information about the Lewis and Clark Expedition (see examples under “Materials”).
  • Make copies of each of the following:
    • “Expedition Information” worksheet (1 per group).
    • “Plus/Minus” chart (1 per group).
    • “Canoe/Pirogue Data Sheet” (1 per student, optional).
    • “Keelboat Data Sheet” (1 per student, optional).
  • Arrange to use the school computer lab for three class sessions.
  • Bookmark appropriate Internet sites.
  • Locate copies of appropriate print resources that provide accurate information about the details of Lewis and Clark’s journey and transportation vessels (see examples under “Materials”).

Worksheets and Files

Lesson plan, worksheet(s), and rubric (if any) at www.usmint.gov/kids/teachers/lessonPlans/pdf/178.pdf.

Session 1

  1. Display the overhead transparency of the pre-2004 Monticello nickel obverse. Ask students to examine this image and tell you what they know about it. The students should be able to identify this as the obverse (front) of a nickel and to explain that it depicts President Thomas Jefferson.
  2. Ask the students if they know what is on the reverse (back) of the nickel. After hearing responses, display the overhead transparency of the pre-2004 Monticello nickel reverse. If students do not know, explain that the building was President Jefferson’s home, called “Monticello.”
  3. Explain that, starting in 2004 and continuing through 2005, our country is changing its nickels to tell the story of two men, named Lewis and Clark, who led an expedition that explored our country’s land 200 years ago.
  4. Introduce the students to the selected text. As a group, preview the text and illustrations to generate predictions about what is occurring in different parts of the book.
  5. Read the selected text aloud to the class. Ask students to pay careful attention to any part of the text that describes the purpose of Lewis and Clark’s exploration. Do not read aloud any references to the keelboat.
  6. Direct the students to list the purposes of the Expedition on chart paper. Guide the students to respond that the missions of the Expedition were to find and map a Northwest Passage to the Pacific Ocean, to observe and record information about the plants, animals, and peoples that were encountered, and to form relationships with the American Indian tribes they met along the way.
  7. Group the class into 4 or 5 small groups.
  8. Distribute one “Expedition Information” worksheet to each group. Have one student in each group record the purposes of the mission in the “Purpose” box on this sheet.
  9. Display the “North America in the 1800s” map overhead transparency. Follow Lewis and Clark’s route with your finger or an overhead marker, and point out that the explorers traveled over both land and water.
  10. Ask the students to brainstorm about different modes of transportation that Lewis and Clark might have used during their journey.
  11. Inform the students that they will be researching different boats in the following session and eventually determining which boat would be the best choice for Lewis and Clark’s expedition.

Session 2

  1. Display the “North America in the 1800s” map overhead transparency and point out the Missouri River. Explain that the groups will be researching this river in order to make an informed decision about which kind of boat would have been able to best navigate the Missouri River at the beginning of Lewis and Clark’s expedition.
  2. Review the “Expedition Information” worksheet with the class. Have groups read the questions in their “Missouri River” box and assign research tasks to each member.
  3. Visit the computer lab with your students or provide significant print resources such as books, magazines, encyclopedias, and the Lewis and Clark journals.
  4. Allow 30 minutes for group research.
  5. Direct the groups to assemble and record their findings in the “Missouri River” box on the “Expedition Information” worksheet.
  6. At the end of class, have groups come up with a specific description of a boat that would be able to navigate the Missouri river. Have each group share and discuss its description.

Session 3

  1. Explain to students that, now that they have more information on the Missouri River, they will be looking at the two different types of boats that may have navigated the river (pirogues/canoes and keelboats) in order to decide which one would have been the best choice for the first part of the journey.
  2. Direct the groups to read the questions in the “Keelboat Dimensions” and “Canoe/Pirogue Dimensions” boxes on their “Expedition Information” worksheets and assign research tasks to each member.
  3. Visit the computer lab with your students or provide significant print resources such as books, magazines, encyclopedias, and the Lewis and Clark journals.
  4. Allow 30 minutes of group research.
  5. Direct the groups to assemble and record their findings for each boat in the corresponding boxes on the “Expedition Information” worksheet.
  6. Lead the class into the hallway or another large area where they can mark off the dimensions of each boat on the wall or floor using sticky notes or masking tape. If necessary, supply the students with the boat dimensions from the “Canoe/Pirogue” and “Keelboat” data sheets.
  7. When the students have finished marking off the area of each boat, have the whole class stand in each area. Direct students to visualize and discuss how large each vessel was and estimate how many people and how much cargo each might hold.
  8. Return to the classroom and direct groups to write about which boat they would select for the first part of the Expedition in the “Journal” box on the “Expedition Information” worksheet.

Session 4

  1. Explain that the groups’ mission in this session is to find information on the number and type of people that were on the Expedition and the amount of supplies that were brought.
  2. Direct the groups to read the questions in the “Crew” and “Supplies” boxes and assign research tasks to each member. If necessary, use the 2004 Peace Medal Nickel lesson plan for Grade 3, “Take It or Leave It.”
  3. Visit the computer lab with your class or provide significant print resources such as books, magazines, Encyclopedias, and the Lewis and Clark journals.
  4. Allow 30 minutes for group research.
  5. Direct the groups to assemble and record their findings in the corresponding boxes on the “Expedition Information” worksheet.
  6. Explain to the students that they will be taking the information they researched on their “Expedition Information” worksheet and will use it to make a decision as to which type of boat was the best choice for the first part of the Expedition.
  7. Distribute one “Plus/Minus” chart to each group. Have students work in their groups to weigh the pros and cons of each boat. Direct students to use the information from their group’s data sheet in arguing the best boat choice.

Session 5

  1. Direct the groups to select the boat they feel was the best made for navigating the first part of the Missouri River. Inform groups that they will explain to the rest of the class the reasons for their decision.
  2. Allow the groups 5 to 10 minutes to make their decision and jot down the reasons to support this decision.
  3. Have the groups present their decisions to the rest of the class. Allow student discussion and debate as to which boat was the best choice.
  4. Explain to the students that one of these boats was the central figure on the reverse (back) of one of the new nickels in the Westward Journey Nickel Series™. Ask the students if they know which boat that was. After hearing responses, display the transparency of the Keelboat Nickel reverse.
  5. Display the overhead transparency of the Keelboat Nickel reverse and ask students to discuss the images on the coin and what they represent. Explain to the students that all three types of boats were actually used, but that the coin depicts the keelboat, which was the largest vessel on the Expedition. Supply several reasons that this boat was chosen. Include in this explanation that the keelboat offered the most protection due to its reinforcements, the most shelter due to its construction, and that it held the most cargo.

Differentiated Learning Options

  • If students have difficulty working in groups, complete activities as a whole class.
  • Pair students when completing independent research.

Enrichments/Extensions

  • Have students use non-standard measurements in marking the dimensions of each type of boat.
  • Find other symbols that could have been used on the nickel to symbolize the journey. Give reasons for selecting other symbols.
  • Research other coins related to the Lewis and Clark journey.
  • Collect and evaluate the group “Expedition Information” worksheets and boat decisions.
  • Take anecdotal notes about the students’ abilities to discuss the characteristics of each boat and work in groups to come to a decision about which would be the best choice for the river.

Discipline: Math
Domain: 4.MD Measurement and Data
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit
Standards:

  • 4.MD.1. Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including km, m, cm, kg, g, lb, oz, l, ml, hr, min and sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Record measurement equivalents in a two column table.
    • For example, know that 1ft is 12 times as long as 1in. Express the length of a 4ft snake as 48in. Generate a conversion table for feet and inches listing the number pairs (1, 12), (2, 24), (3, 36), ...
  • 4.MD.2. Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale.
  • 4.MD.3. Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real world and mathematical problems. For example, find the width of a rectangular room given the area of the flooring and the length, by viewing the area formula as a multiplication equation with an unknown factor. 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.4 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Production and Distribution of Writing
Standards:

  • W.4.4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
  • W.4.5. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grade 4.)
  • W.4.6. With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of one page in a single sitting. 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.4 Language
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.4.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Use relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) and relative adverbs (where, when, why).
    • Form and use the progressive (e.g., I was walking; I am walking; I will be walking) verb tenses.
    • Use modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, must) to convey various conditions.
    • Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag).
    • Form and use prepositional phrases.
    • Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.
    • Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to, too, two; there, their).
  • L.4.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Use correct capitalization.
    • Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a text.
    • Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence.
    • Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.4 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RI.4.4. Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or phrases in a text relevant to a grade 4 topic or subject area.
  • RI.4.5. Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text.
  • RI.4.6. Compare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same event or topic; describe the differences in focus and the information provided.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.4 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RI.4.7. Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears.
  • RI.4.8. Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text.
  • RI.4.9. Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.4 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RI.4.1. Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
  • RI.4.2. Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text.
  • RI.4.3. Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.4 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.4.7. Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.
  • W.4.8. Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources.
  • W.4.9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    • Apply grade 4 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions].”).
    • Apply grade 4 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., “Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text”).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.4 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
Standards:

  • SL.4.1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    • Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
    • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
    • Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of others.
    • Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.
  • SL.4.2. Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
  • SL.4.3. Identify the reasons and evidence a speaker provides to support particular points. 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.4 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • SL.4.4. Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.
  • SL.4.5. Add audio recordings and visual displays to presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.
  • SL.4.6. Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion); use formal English when appropriate to task and situation. (See grade 4 Language standards 1 for specific expectations.)

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: People, Places, and Environment
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • Enable learners to use, interpret, and distinguish various representations of Earth such as maps, globes, and photographs, and to use appropriate geographic tools
  • Encourage learners to construct, use, and refine maps and mental maps, calculate distance, scale, area, and density, and organize information about people, places, regions, and environments in a spatial context
  • Help learners to locate, distinguish, and describe the relationships among varying regional and global patterns of physical systems such as landforms, climate, and natural resources, and explain changes in the physical systems
  • Guide learners in exploring characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth’s surface
  • Have learners describe how people create places that reflect culture, human needs, current values and ideals, and government policies
  • Provide opportunities for learners to examine, interpret, and analyze interactions of human beings and their physical environments, and to observe and analyze social and economic effects of environmental changes, both positive and negative
  • Challenge learners to consider, compare, and evaluate existing uses of resources and land in communities, regions, countries, and the world
  • Direct learners to explore ways in which Earth’s physical features have changed over time, and describe and assess ways historical events have influenced and been influenced by physical and human geographic features

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Applying Strategies to Text
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students apply a wide range of strategies to comprehend, interpret, evaluate, and appreciate texts. They draw on their prior experience, their interactions with other readers and writers, their knowledge of word meaning and of other texts, their word identification strategies, and their understanding of textual features (e.g., sound–letter correspondence, sentence structure, context, graphics).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Using Technological Information
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students use a variety of technological and information resources (e.g., libraries, databases, computer networks, video) to gather and synthesize information and to create and communicate knowledge.

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Science, Technology, and Society
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • enable learners to identify, describe, and examine both current and historical examples of the interaction and interdependence of science, technology, and society in a variety of cultural settings
  • provide opportunities for learners to make judgments about how science and technology have transformed the physical world and human society and our understanding of time, space, place, and human-environment interactions
  • have learners analyze the way in which science and technology influence core societal values, beliefs, and attitudes and how societal attitudes influence scientific and technological endeavors
  • prompt learners to evaluate various policies proposed to deal with social changes resulting from new technologies
  • help learners to identify and interpret various perspectives about human societies and the physical world using scientific knowledge, technologies, and an understanding of ethical standards of this and other cultures
  • encourage learners to formulate strategies and develop policy proposals pertaining to science/technology-society issues

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Time, Continuity, and Change
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • assist learners to understand that historical knowledge and the concept of time are socially influenced constructions that lead historians to be selective in the questions they seek to answer and the evidence they use
  • help learners apply key concepts such as time, chronology, causality, change, conflict, and complexity to explain, analyze, and show connections among patterns of historical change and continuity
  • enable learners to identify and describe significant historical periods and patterns of change within and across cultures, including but not limited to, the development of ancient cultures and civilizations, the emergence of religious belief systems, the rise of nation-states, and social, economic, and political revolutions
  • guide learners in using such processes of critical historical inquiry to reconstruct and interpret the past, such as using a variety of sources and checking their credibility, validating and weighing evidence for claims, searching for causality, and distinguishing between events and developments that are significant and those that are inconsequential
  • provide learners with opportunities to investigate, interpret, and analyze multiple historical and contemporary viewpoints within and across cultures related to important events, recurring dilemmas, and persistent issues, while employing empathy, skepticism, and critical judgment; and enable learners to apply ideas, theories, and modes of historical inquiry to analyze historical and contemporary developments, and to inform and evaluate actions concerning public policy issues.

Discipline: Science
Domain: K-4 Content Standards
Cluster: Unifying Concepts and Processes
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Systems, order, and organization
  • Evidence, models, and explanation
  • Change, constancy, and measurement
  • Evolution and equilibrium
  • Form and function

Discipline: Mathematics
Domain: 3-5 Measurement
Cluster: Apply appropriate techniques, tools, and formulas to determine measurements.
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

In grades 3–5 all students should

  • develop strategies for estimating the perimeters, areas, and volumes of irregular shapes;
  • select and apply appropriate standard units and tools to measure length, area, volume, weight, time, temperature, and the size of angles;
  • select and use benchmarks to estimate measurements;
  • develop, understand, and use formulas to find the area of rectangles and related triangles and parallelograms; and
  • develop strategies to determine the surface areas and volumes of rectangular solids.

Discipline: Mathematics
Domain: 3-5 Measurement
Cluster: Understand measurable attributes of objects and the units, systems, and processes of measurement.
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

In grades 3–5 all students should

  • understand such attributes as length, area, weight, volume, and size of angle and select the appropriate type of unit for measuring each attribute;
  • understand the need for measuring with standard units and become familiar with standard units in the customary and metric systems;
  • carry out simple unit conversions, such as from centimeters to meters, within a system of measurement;
  • understand that measurements are approximations and how differences in units affect precision; and
  • explore what happens to measurements of a two-dimensional shape such as its perimeter and area when the shape is changed in some way.

Discipline: Technology
Domain: All Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making
Cluster: Students use critical thinking skills to plan and conduct research, manage projects, solve problems, and make informed decisions using appropriate digital tools and resources.
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Identify and define authentic problems and significant questions for investigation
  • Plan and manage activities to develop a solution or complete a project
  • Collect and analyze data to identify solutions and/or make informed decisions
  • Use multiple processes and diverse perspectives to explore alternative solutions

Discipline: Technology
Domain: All Technology Operations and Concepts
Cluster: Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems, and operations.
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Understand and use technology systems
  • Select and use applications effectively and productively
  • Troubleshoot systems and applications
  • Transfer current knowledge to learning of new technologies

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Production, Distribution, and Consumption
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • enable learners to explain how the scarcity of productive resources (human, capital, technological, and natural) requires the development of economic systems to make decisions about how goods and services are to be produced and distributed
  • help learners analyze the role that supply and demand, prices, incentives, and profits play in determining what is produced and distributed in a competitive market system
  • help learners compare the costs and benefits to society of allocating goods and services through private and public means
  • assist learners in understanding the relationships among the various economic institutions that comprise economic systems such as households, businesses, banks, government agencies, labor unions, and corporations
  • guide learner analysis of the role of specialization and exchange in economic processes
  • provide opportunities for learners to assess how values and beliefs influence private and public economic decisions in different societies
  • have learners compare basic economic systems according to how they deal with demand, supply, prices, the role of government, banks, labor and labor unions, savings and investments, and capital
  • challenge learners to apply economic concepts and reasoning when evaluating historical and contemporary social developments and issues
  • enable learners to distinguish between domestic and global economic systems, and explain how the two interact
  • guide learners in the application of economic concepts and principles in the analysis of public issues such as the allocation of health care or the consumption of energy, and in devising economic plans for accomplishing socially desirable outcomes related to such issues
  • help learners critically examine the values and assumptions underlying the theories and models of economics
  • help learners to distinguish between economics as a field of inquiry and the economy

Discipline: Science
Domain: K-4 Content Standards
Cluster: Science and Technology
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Technological design ability
  • Understand science and technology
  • Ability to distinguish between natural objects and objects made by humans

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Use of Spoken, Written, and Visual Language
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Research
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideas and questions, and by posing problems. They gather, evaluate, and synthesize data from a variety of sources (e.g., print and nonprint texts, artifacts, people) to communicate their discoveries in ways that suit their purpose and audience. 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Print/Non-print Texts
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students read a wide range of print and non-print texts to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United States and the world; to acquire new information; to respond to the needs and demands of society and the workplace; and for personal fulfillment. Among these texts are fiction and nonfiction, classic and contemporary works. 

Discipline: Science
Domain: K-4 Content Standards
Cluster: Science as Inquiry
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Ability necessary to do scientific inquiry
  • Understand scientific inquiry