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Where Indians and Bison Meet

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Summary

Students will research some of the American Indian tribes that Meriwether Lewis and William Clark met along their expedition route and will explain the importance of the bison to these tribes. Students will present information on their American Indian tribes.

Coin Type(s)

  • Nickel

Coin Program(s)

  • Westward Journey Nickel Series

Objectives

  • Students will research some of the American Indian tribes that Meriwether Lewis and William Clark met along their expedition route and will explain the importance of the bison to these tribes.
  • Students will present information on their American Indian tribes.

Major Subject Area Connections

  • Language Arts
  • Social Studies
  • Technology

Grades

  • Fifth grade

Class Time

Sessions: Four
Session Length: 45-60 minutes
Total Length: 151-500 minutes

Groupings

  • Whole group
  • Pairs
  • Individual work

Background Knowledge

Students should have a basic knowledge of:

  • Lewis and Clark Expedition
  • U.S. geography
  • Research skills
  • Natural resources

Terms and Concepts

  • Obverse (front)
  • Reverse (back)
  • Lewis and Clark
  • Louisiana Purchase
  • President Thomas Jefferson
  • American Indians
  • Bison

Materials

  • “Pre-2004 Monticello Nickel” page from the Resource Guide
  • American Bison Nickels
  • Overhead Projector
  • The following pages from the Resource Guide:
    • “Pre-2004 Monticello Nickel Obverse” page
    • “Pre-2004 Monticello Nickel Reverse” page
    • “American Bison Nickel Obverse” page
    • “American Bison Nickel Reverse” page
    • “Louisiana Territory Map”
  • Chart paper/markers
  • Colored pencils
  • 3 X 5 white index cards
  • “American Indian Research” worksheets
  • “Project Rubric” sheet
  • Copies of age-appropriate reference materials that provide information about the Lewis and Clark Expedition, American Indians, and the bison, such as:
    • How We Crossed the West: The Adventures of Lewis and Clark by Rosalyn Schanzer
    • Lewis and Clark: Explorers of the American West by Steven Kroll
    • The Incredible Journey of Lewis & Clark by Rhoda Blumberg
    • Indians of the Plains by Elaine Andrews
    • Scholastic Encyclopedia of the North American Indian by James Ciment with Ronald LaFrance
    • Animals on the Trail with Lewis and Clark by Dorothy Hinshaw Patent
    • North American Bison by John Becker
    • Buffalo Hunt by Russell Freedman
  • Web sites that include basic information about the American Indians met by Lewis and Clark and about the bison of the Plains, such as:

Preparations

  • Make copies of the following:
    • “American Indian Research” worksheets (1 of each of 2 pages per student)
    • “Project Rubric” sheet (1 per student)
  • Make an enlarged copy of the “Louisiana Territory Map” from the Resource Guide.
  • Make an overhead transparency of the following:
    • “Pre-2004 Monticello Nickel Obverse” page from the Resource Guide
    • “Pre-2004 Monticello Nickel Reverse” page from the Resource Guide
    • “American Bison Nickel Obverse” page from the Resource Guide
    • “American Bison Nickel Reverse” page from the Resource Guide
    • “American Indian Research” worksheets
    • “Project Rubric” sheet
  • Gather Pre-2004 Monticello Nickels (1 per student).
  • Gather American Bison Nickels (1 per student).
  • Locate appropriate books that provide information about the American Indian tribes and the bison (see examples under “Materials”).
  • Arrange to use the school computer lab.
  • Bookmark appropriate Internet sites (see examples under “Materials”).

Worksheets and Files

Lesson plan, worksheet(s), and rubric (if any) at www.usmint.gov/kids/teachers/lessonPlans/pdf/184.pdf.

Session 1

  1. Explain that people throughout history have placed images on coins and currency. These images highlight items that were important to their culture.
  2. Distribute Pre-2004 Monticello Nickels to the students and allow them time to thoroughly examine each side. Display a transparency of the “Pre-2004 Monticello Nickel Obverse” page for discussion.
  3. Explain that the term “obverse” refers to the front of the coin. Direct the students to describe the images on the obverse of the coin. Record student responses on a piece of chart paper. As necessary, explain that the image on the obverse is a bust of President Thomas Jefferson, the third president of the United States, who was responsible for the purchase of the Louisiana Territory, which more than doubled the size of the United States.
  4. Display a transparency of the “Pre-2004 Monticello Nickel Reverse” page for discussion.
  5. Explain that the term “reverse” refers to the back of the coin. Direct the students to describe the image on the reverse of the coin. Record student responses on a piece of chart paper. As necessary, explain that the image on the reverse is Monticello, Jefferson’s home.
  6. Explain that President Jefferson directed Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the land Jefferson acquired through the Louisiana Purchase. To commemorate this exploration, the United States government is producing five new nickel designs between 2004 and 2006. These new nickel designs make up the Westward Journey Nickel Series™. Ask questions to assess the students’ knowledge of the expedition of Lewis and Clark and the Corps of Discovery. (Use the overview of the Lewis and Clark Expedition from the Resource Guide, if needed).
  7. Distribute an American Bison Nickel to each of the students and allow them time to thoroughly examine each side.
  8. Ask the students to compare the Pre-2004 Monticello Nickel’s obverse with the new American Bison Nickel’s obverse. Record student responses on a piece of chart paper.
  9. Ask the students to turn the American Bison Nickel over and describe the image on the reverse. Display a transparency of the reverse of this nickel for discussion. Ask the students to state what they think this animal is, and then explain to the students that the American bison is not really a buffalo—no species of buffalo is native to North America—but people have used the term “buffalo” to describe the American bison since before Lewis and Clark’s time, so the terms are virtually interchangeable in common usage.
  10. Ask the students why they think this animal is on the coin’s reverse, and what significance this animal has to the Lewis and Clark Expedition.
  11. Record student responses on chart paper.
  12. Explain that this image was chosen because the bison is one of the most enduring symbols of the expedition of Lewis and Clark and was very important to many American Indian cultures.
  13. Collect all the nickels.

Session 2

  1. Display on a wall a large drawn map of the Louisiana Territory (copied from the “Louisiana Territory Map” in the Resource Guide) or outline the Louisiana Territory on a pulldown map of the United States. Explain to the students that they will be researching information about the American Indian tribes that lived along the route of the Lewis and Clark Expedition.
  2. Display a list of American Indian tribes. Include the following tribes: Oto, Missouri, Omaha, Teton Lakota, Arikara, Mandan, Hidatsa, Shoshone, Nez Perce, Cheyenne, Kansa, and Crow.
  3. Assign students to pairs. Have each pair select one tribe to research. The students will work together to locate information but will individually respond to the questions on the “American Indian Research” worksheets and write their own report. The worksheets will be used as a pre-writing plan for the written report.
  4. Discuss with the students the “American Indian Research” worksheets and the rubric for writing the report to check for understanding of the tasks. Explain to the students that they will need to list the resources they used at the bottom of the report.
  5. Allow the students sufficient time to answer the questions and to write the report.
  6. Distribute a 3-by-5 index card to each student. Direct the students to draw, label, and color on the card the symbol they have chosen to represent their American Indian tribe. These symbols will be placed on the map of the Louisiana Territory at the end of the oral presentations.

Session 3

  1. Have pairs of students create a product to represent the information they gathered about their selected American Indian tribes. Products showing an important aspect of the American Indians’ culture in reference to the bison could include multi-media presentations, illustrated booklets with captioned pictures, a three-dimensional replica, etc.
  2. Discuss the rubric for the product and the oral presentation with the students.
  3. Allow a sufficient amount of time for the students to create their products and to prepare for the oral presentations.

Session 4

  1. For the oral presentations, direct the class to sit with their partner in a circle as American Indians sat in a circle to hear a member of the tribe speak.
  2. After the presentations of the research and products, have the students place the symbols representing their tribes on the enlarged map of the Louisiana Territory.
  3. Discuss the different symbols on the map and allow time for the students to view the map.
  4. Display the products in the classroom.

Differentiated Learning Options

  • Have students use some of the easier-to-read books to gather information about their American Indian tribe, such as:
    • The Lewis and Clark Expedition by Patricia Ryon Quiri
    • North American Indians by Marie and Douglas Gorsline
    • The Wonder of Bison by Rita Ritchie and Todd Wilkinson
  • Encourage interested students to write poems and songs based on their research information on the American Indian culture and the importance of the bison.

Enrichments/Extensions

  • Have students read a text about Lewis’ dog, Seaman, who accompanied Lewis on the expedition, such as:
    • Lewis and Clark and Me by Laurie Myers
    • The Captain’s Dog: My Journey with the Lewis and Clark Tribe by Roland Smith
    • Dog of Discovery: A Newfoundland’s Adventures with Lewis and Clark by Laurence Pringle.
  • Have students do research to answer the question “Where have all the bison gone?” and present their findings to the class.
  • Other American Indian tribes Lewis and Clark encountered were the Chinook and Clatsop tribes. Have students locate information about these tribes and explain why the bison was not important to them.
  • Have students research interesting facts about the bison, such as its physical features, habitat, food, and enemies.
  • Review the students’ “American Indian Research” worksheets to assess the content for the report.
  • Use the rubric for the students’ written report on their selected American Indian tribe.
  • Use the rubric for the oral presentation of the American Indians research report and the finished product the partners create.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.5 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 5
Cluster: Production and Distribution of Writing
Standards:

  • W.5.4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3.)
  • W.5.5. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grade 5 here.)
  • W.5.6. With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of two pages in a single sitting.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.5 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 5
Cluster: Text Types and Purposes
Standards:

  • W.5.1. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.
    • Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which ideas are logically grouped to support the writer’s purpose.
    • Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details.
    • Link opinion and reasons using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., consequently, specifically).
    • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.
  • W.5.2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
    • Introduce a topic clearly, provide a general observation and focus, and group related information logically; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.
    • Link ideas within and across categories of information using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., in contrast, especially).
    • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
    • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.
  • W.5.3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
    • Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
    • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, description, and pacing, to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations.
    • Use a variety of transitional words, phrases, and clauses to manage the sequence of events.
    • Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely.
    • Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.5 Language
Grade(s): Grade 5
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.5.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Explain the function of conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections in general and their function in particular sentences.
    • Form and use the perfect (e.g., I had walked; I have walked; I will have walked) verb tenses.
    • Use verb tense to convey various times, sequences, states, and conditions.
    • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense.
    • Use correlative conjunctions (e.g., either/or, neither/nor).
  • L.5.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Use punctuation to separate items in a series.
    • Use a comma to separate an introductory element from the rest of the sentence.
    • Use a comma to set off the words yes and no (e.g., Yes, thank you), to set off a tag question from the rest of the sentence (e.g., It’s true, isn’t it?), and to indicate direct address (e.g., Is that you, Steve?).
    • Use underlining, quotation marks, or italics to indicate titles of works.
    • Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.5 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 5
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RI.5.4. Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area.
  • RI.5.5. Compare and contrast the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in two or more texts.
  • RI.5.6. Analyze multiple accounts of the same event or topic, noting important similarities and differences in the point of view they represent.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.5 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 5
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RI.5.7. Draw on information from multiple print or digital sources, demonstrating the ability to locate an answer to a question quickly or to solve a problem efficiently.
  • RI.5.8. Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point(s).
  • RI.5.9. Integrate information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.5 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 5
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RI.5.1. Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
  • RI.5.2. Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text.
  • RI.5.3. Explain the relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific information in the text.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.5 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 5
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.5.7. Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.
  • W.5.8. Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of sources.
  • W.5.9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    • Apply grade 5 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or a drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., how characters interact]”).
    • Apply grade 5 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., “Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point[s]”).

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: People, Places, and Environment
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • Enable learners to use, interpret, and distinguish various representations of Earth such as maps, globes, and photographs, and to use appropriate geographic tools
  • Encourage learners to construct, use, and refine maps and mental maps, calculate distance, scale, area, and density, and organize information about people, places, regions, and environments in a spatial context
  • Help learners to locate, distinguish, and describe the relationships among varying regional and global patterns of physical systems such as landforms, climate, and natural resources, and explain changes in the physical systems
  • Guide learners in exploring characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth’s surface
  • Have learners describe how people create places that reflect culture, human needs, current values and ideals, and government policies
  • Provide opportunities for learners to examine, interpret, and analyze interactions of human beings and their physical environments, and to observe and analyze social and economic effects of environmental changes, both positive and negative
  • Challenge learners to consider, compare, and evaluate existing uses of resources and land in communities, regions, countries, and the world
  • Direct learners to explore ways in which Earth’s physical features have changed over time, and describe and assess ways historical events have influenced and been influenced by physical and human geographic features

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Applying Strategies to Text
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students apply a wide range of strategies to comprehend, interpret, evaluate, and appreciate texts. They draw on their prior experience, their interactions with other readers and writers, their knowledge of word meaning and of other texts, their word identification strategies, and their understanding of textual features (e.g., sound–letter correspondence, sentence structure, context, graphics).

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Culture and Cultural Diversity
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • assist learners to understand and apply the concept of culture as an integrated whole that governs the functions and interactions of language, literature, arts, traditions, beliefs, values, and behavior patterns
  • enable learners to analyze and explain how groups, societies, and cultures address human needs and concerns
  • guide learners as they predict how experiences may be interpreted by people from diverse cultural perspectives and frames of reference
  • encourage learners to compare and analyze societal patterns for transmitting and preserving culture while adapting to environmental and social change
  • enable learners to assess the importance of cultural unity and diversity within and across groups
  • have learners interpret patterns of behavior as reflecting values and attitudes which contribute to or pose obstacles to cross-cultural understanding
  • guide learners in constructing reasoned judgments about specific cultural responses to persistent human issues
  • have learners explain and apply ideas, theories, and modes of inquiry drawn from anthropology and sociology in the examination of persistent issues and social problems

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Time, Continuity, and Change
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • assist learners to understand that historical knowledge and the concept of time are socially influenced constructions that lead historians to be selective in the questions they seek to answer and the evidence they use
  • help learners apply key concepts such as time, chronology, causality, change, conflict, and complexity to explain, analyze, and show connections among patterns of historical change and continuity
  • enable learners to identify and describe significant historical periods and patterns of change within and across cultures, including but not limited to, the development of ancient cultures and civilizations, the emergence of religious belief systems, the rise of nation-states, and social, economic, and political revolutions
  • guide learners in using such processes of critical historical inquiry to reconstruct and interpret the past, such as using a variety of sources and checking their credibility, validating and weighing evidence for claims, searching for causality, and distinguishing between events and developments that are significant and those that are inconsequential
  • provide learners with opportunities to investigate, interpret, and analyze multiple historical and contemporary viewpoints within and across cultures related to important events, recurring dilemmas, and persistent issues, while employing empathy, skepticism, and critical judgment; and enable learners to apply ideas, theories, and modes of historical inquiry to analyze historical and contemporary developments, and to inform and evaluate actions concerning public policy issues.

Discipline: Technology
Domain: All Research and Information Fluency
Cluster: Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information.
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Plan strategies to guide inquiry
  • Locate, organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media
  • Evaluate and select information sources and digital tools based on the appropriateness to specific tasks
  • Process data and report results

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Use of Spoken, Written, and Visual Language
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Effective Communication
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes.