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Exploration Across Eras

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Summary

Students will understand the chronology of events related to the Corps of Discovery and the United States space program of the 1960s. Students will compare the Corps of Discovery’s journey with the space exploration program, including the impact of individuals, technology, presidential leadership, and the influence of international affairs. Students will conduct research using the Internet and other sources. Students will compose a persuasive essay, including a thesis statement and a bibliography. Students will participate in the writing process, including taking notes, outlining, composing first and final drafts, and peer editing.

Coin Type(s)

  • Nickel

Coin Program(s)

  • Westward Journey Nickel Series

Objectives

  • Students will understand the chronology of events related to the Corps of Discovery and the United States space program of the 1960s.
  • Students will compare the Corps of Discovery’s journey with the space exploration program, including the impact of individuals, technology, presidential leadership, and the influence of international affairs.
  • Students will conduct research using the Internet and other sources. Students will compose a persuasive essay, including a thesis statement and a bibliography.
  • Students will participate in the writing process, including taking notes, outlining, composing first and final drafts, and peer editing.

Major Subject Area Connections

  • Language Arts
  • Social Studies

Minor/supporting Subject Area Connections

  • Technology

Grades

  • Ninth grade
  • Tenth grade
  • Eleventh grade
  • Twelfth grade

Class Time

Sessions: Five
Session Length: 45-60 minutes
Total Length: 151-500 minutes

Groupings

  • Whole group
  • Small groups
  • Pairs
  • Individual work

Background Knowledge

Students should have a basic knowledge of:

  • 19th century United States history including:
    • Lewis and Clark and the Corps of Discovery
    • Louisiana Purchase
    • Thomas Jefferson
  • Mid-20th century history including:
    • John F. Kennedy
    • The Cold War
    • The Bay of Pigs
  • Independent research skills
  • The writing process

Terms and Concepts

  • Obverse (front)
  •  Reverse (back)
  •  Sergeant Charles Floyd
  •  Sacagawea
  •  York
  •  Napoleon
  •  Sputnik
  •  John Glenn
  •  Buzz Aldrin
  •  The Apollo Program
  •  Neil Armstrong
  •  Gus Grissom

Materials

  • 1 overhead projector
  • Copies of the worksheets attached to this lesson plan (see "Preparations")
  • Blank overhead transparencies
  • Overhead transparency markers
  • A media center with Internet access

Preparations

Worksheets and Files

Lesson plan, worksheet(s), and rubric (if any) at www.usmint.gov/kids/teachers/lessonPlans/pdf/196.pdf.

Session 1

  1. Write Neil Armstrong’s quote, "That’s one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind," on the blackboard. Display the "Coins Commemorating Exploration" overhead transparency.
  2. Distribute one copy of the "Coins Commemorating Exploration" worksheet to each student. Ask the students to describe what they see in each image and hypothesize on the image’s link to exploration. Ask the students to record their descriptions and their hypotheses in the box next to each image.
  3. Allow the students five to ten minutes to complete the worksheets individually. After this time period, direct the students to choose a partner and collaborate for an additional five to ten minutes.
  4. Lead a class discussion regarding the students’ answers on their completed "Coins Commemorating Exploration" worksheets. Use the students’ responses to complete a model "Coins Commemorating Exploration" worksheet on the overhead transparency.
  5. Hold a brief discussion on the idea that events that seem very different from each other can, in fact, be analogous. Explain that one of the values of studying history lies in finding similarities between seemingly different events and drawing conclusions that can help us in the present. Explain that the students will be asked to write a persuasive essay that demonstrates how two events, separated by more than 150 years, were very similar, and that the two events are the Corps of Discovery’s exploration of the Louisiana Territory beginning in 1804 and the space program undertaken by the United States in the 1960s.
  6. Display the "Persuasive Essay Rubric" overhead transparency. Distribute one "Persuasive Essay Rubric" to each student. Explain that the students will write a persuasive essay in which they will make the case that the Corps of Discovery’s journey west and the space program are very similar and that the lessons learned from both of these endeavors can be applied today. Inform the students that the essay will be evaluated using the rubric.
  7. Explain that interim assignments will help them develop the final essay. Review the due dates for the essay and any interim assignments.
  8. Review the rubric with the students. Ensure that the students understand each of the criteria on which the essay will be evaluated.
  9. Distribute one "What Do We Know?" worksheet to each student. Tell the students that they will use this worksheet to organize basic information regarding both of these events. Explain to the students how they will organize information within the table.
  10. Divide the class into halves. Tell one half of the class that, for homework, they will complete the table for the Corps of Discovery using their background knowledge, their textbooks, their "Coins Commemorating Exploration" worksheets, and Internet resources. Tell the other half to complete the table for the space program using the same resources.

Session 2

  1. Ask the students to retrieve their completed "Coins Commemorating Exploration" and their "What Do We Know?" worksheets. Display the "What Do We Know?" overhead transparency.
  2. Have the students pair up so that one student who completed the Corps of Discovery column works with a student who completed the space program column. Ask the students to share answers and record them on their "What Do We Know?" worksheets so that each student’s worksheet is complete.
  3. Display the "What Do We Know?" overhead transparency. Lead a class discussion regarding the students’ answers on their completed worksheets. Use the students’ responses to complete a model worksheet on the overhead transparency.
  4. Display the "Developing a Thesis Statement" overhead transparency. Distribute one "Developing a Thesis Statement" worksheet to each student. If necessary, explain that a persuasive essay declares a main idea in the introduction (the thesis) and proves the thesis in the main body of the essay.
  5. Direct the students to review the information they have recorded on their "What Do We Know?" worksheets. Explain to them that their worksheets may contain many similarities between the Corps of Discovery’s journey and the space program, but that they should select the three that they believe are the strongest and most important. Similarities could include impacts of the explorations, presidential leadership, a focus on science, risk and danger, the influence of international events, and funding issues. Direct the students to record their three strongest similarities in the appropriate column on the "Developing a Thesis Statement" worksheet. Ask the students to transfer the facts that support each similarity from the "What Do We Know?" worksheet. Use information from the class discussion to provide an example of one similarity and set of supporting facts on the overhead transparency.
  6. Tell the students that, after they complete the table on the "Developing a Thesis Statement" worksheet, they should construct a thesis statement using their three similarities. Explain to the students that a thesis statement should state the main idea of the paper and outline the major supports for the idea. Model the construction of a thesis statement.
  7. Once the students have completed the "Developing a Thesis Statement" worksheet, ask them to form groups of three or four. Inform the students that each member of the group should share his or her thesis statement with the group and that they should collectively review and edit each of the thesis statements presented. Tell the students that the thesis statement may be long, but it should be clear and easily understood. Remind the students to look for parallel construction.
  8. Distribute five copies of the "Persuasive Essay Research Organizer" and one copy of the "Persuasive Essay Outline" worksheet to each student. Inform the students that they will
  9. In the media center, ask the students to retrieve their "Developing a Thesis Statement" worksheets and their "Persuasive Essay Research Organizers."
  10. Tell the students that they have the class period to conduct research. Tell the students that, for homework, they are to complete the research process and use the information that they have compiled to complete the "Persuasive Essay Outline" worksheet.
  11. Circulate among the students to provide support.
  12. Inform the students that the next class will be held in the regular classroom and that they should bring their completed "Developing a Thesis Statement," "Persuasive Essay Research Organizer," and "Persuasive Essay Outline" worksheets.

Session 4

  1. Ask the students to retrieve their "Developing a Thesis Statement," "Persuasive Essay Research Organizers," and "Persuasive Essay Outline" worksheets.
  2. Display the "Persuasive Essay Outline Peer Review" overhead transparency. Distribute one "Persuasive Essay Outline Peer Review" worksheet to each student. Review the worksheet with the students.
  3. Ask the students to choose a partner with whom they will trade outlines. Tell the students that they will work in pairs and use the "Persuasive Essay Outline Peer Review" worksheet to review and critique their partner’s outline. Remind the students to discuss the strengths and weaknesses in each other’s work and to offer ideas for improvement. Provide additional instructions regarding the peer review process, if necessary.
  4. Allow the students time to review and discuss. Once both partners have had the opportunity to share their review, the students may use the rest of the class period to begin their first drafts.
  5. Tell the students that, for homework, they are to complete their first drafts. Remind the students of the due date established for their first drafts.
  6. Ask the students to retrieve their completed first drafts.
  7. Place the "Persuasive Essay Rubric" overhead transparency on the overhead projector. Distribute one copy of the "Persuasive Essay Rubric" to each student. Briefly review the rubric.
  8. Ask the students to choose a partner with whom they will trade first drafts. Ask the students not to choose the same partner who completed their "Persuasive Essay Outline Peer Review" worksheet. The students will read and review each other’s first drafts using the "Persuasive Essay Rubric." Remind the students that this is the same rubric that you will use when evaluating their essays. Tell the students that, while they will have time to discuss their critique later, you are asking them first to read their partner’s draft and to complete individually the peer review using the rubric. Encourage the students to utilize tools such as a dictionary, a thesaurus, and any available writing guides.
  9. Establish a set amount of time in which the students will read and review their partner’s draft. Encourage the students who say that they are done to re-review the paper. Do not allow the students to consult with their partners until the allotted time is complete. Remind the students to sign their names to the reviews.
  10. Ask the students to return their partner’s first draft along with the completed "Persuasive Essay Rubric" worksheet. Direct the students to explain their peer review to their partner.
  11. Once each partner has had the opportunity to share the review, the students may use the rest of the class period to begin their final draft.
  12. Tell the students that they are to complete their final draft for homework. Remind the students of the due date established for the final draft.

Differentiated Learning Options

  • Have students create a multimedia presentation demonstrating three similarities between the Corps of Discovery’s westward journey and the space program.
  • Have students role-play various members of the Corps of Discovery and individuals involved in the space program. Suggested roles include: Thomas Jefferson, Meriwether Lewis, William Clark, York, Sacagawea, American Indian chiefs, Sergeant Charles Floyd, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, John Glenn, Gus Grissom, Neil Armstrong, and Buzz Aldrin. Students hold a roundtable in which each character discusses his or her role in exploration, the challenges, and the successes.

Enrichments/Extensions

  • For students who are more proficient in the research and writing process, allow them to develop their own thesis statements and omit some or all of the following worksheets, as appropriate: "Developing a Thesis Statement," "Persuasive Essay Outline," "Persuasive Essay Research Organizer," and "Persuasive Essay Outline Peer Review." Assign all writing tasks as homework.
  • Choose other late 20th century events such as the civil rights movement, the energy crisis of the 1970s, the advent of the computer and the information age, and the Persian Gulf War. Ask students to find analogous events in early American history and develop comparisons. Ask students to outline their similarities and their differences.
  • Have students conduct independent research on the goals, benefits, risks, and costs associated with today’s space exploration program.
  • Use the "Persuasive Essay Rubric" to evaluate the students’ ability to meet the lesson objectives.
  • Use the progress demonstrated on the intermediate worksheets and organizers to assess progress daily.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.9-10 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grades 9– 10
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RI.9-10.7. Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums (e.g., a person’s life story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account.
  • RI.9-10.8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.
  • RI.9-10.9. Analyze seminal U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (e.g., Washington’s Farewell Address, the Gettysburg Address, Roosevelt’s Four Freedoms speech, King’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail”), including how they address related themes and concepts.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.9-10 Writing
Grade(s): Grades 9– 10
Cluster: Text Types and Purposes
Standards:

  • W.9-10.1. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
    • Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
    • Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.
    • Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
    • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
  • W.9-10.2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
    • Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
    • Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
    • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.
    • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
  • W.9-10.3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
    • Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
    • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
    • Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole.
    • Use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
    • Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.9-10 Language
Grade(s): Grades 9– 10
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.9-10.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Use parallel structure.
    • Use various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, adverbial, participial, prepositional, absolute) and clauses (independent, dependent; noun, relative, adverbial) to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations.
  • L.9-10.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Use a semicolon (and perhaps a conjunctive adverb) to link two or more closely related independent clauses.
    • Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation.
    • Spell correctly.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.9-10 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grades 9– 10
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RI.9-10.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper).
  • RI.9-10.5. Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter).
  • RI.9-10.6. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.9-10 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grades 9– 10
Cluster: Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • SL.9-10.4. Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.
  • SL.9-10.5. Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.
  • SL.9-10.6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grades 9–10 Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.)

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.9-10 Writing
Grade(s): Grades 9– 10
Cluster: Production and Distribution of Writing
Standards:

  • W.9-10.4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
  • W.9-10.5. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 up to and including grades 9–10.)
  • W.9-10.6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.9-10 Writing
Grade(s): Grades 9– 10
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.9-10.7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
  • W.9-10.8. Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
  • W.9-10.9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    • Apply grades 9–10 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work [e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare]”).
    • Apply grades 9–10 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning”).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.11-12 Writing
Grade(s): Grades 9– 10
Cluster: Text Types and Purposes
Standards:

  • W.11-12.1. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. 
    • Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons and evidence.
    • Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience's knowledge level, concerns, values and possible biases.
    • Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
    • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
  • W.11-12.2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization and analysis of content. 
    • Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables) and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations or other information and examples appropriate to the audience's knowledge of the topic.
    • Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
    • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.
    • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the
    • information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
  • W.11-12.3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details and well-structured event sequences. 
    • Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation or observation, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
    • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events and/or characters.
    • Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole and build toward a particular tone and outcome (e.g., a sense of mystery, suspense, growth or resolution).
    • Use precise words and phrases, telling details and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting and/or characters.
    • Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed or resolved over the course of the narrative.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.11-12 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grades 9– 10
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RI.11-12.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term or terms over the course of a text (e.g., how Madison defines faction in Federalist No. 10).
  • RI.11-12.5. Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author uses in his or her exposition or argument, including whether the structure makes points clear, convincing, and engaging.
  • RI.11-12.6. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text in which the rhetoric is particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power, persuasiveness or beauty of the text.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.11-12 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grades 9– 10
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RI.11-12.7. Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem.
  • RI.11-12.8. Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning (e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court majority opinions and dissents) and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy (e.g., The Federalist, presidential addresses).
  • RI.11-12.9. Analyze seventeenth-, eighteenth-, and nineteenth-century foundational U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (including The Declaration of Independence, the Preamble to the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address) for their themes, purposes, and rhetorical features.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.11-12 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grades 9– 10
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RI.11-12.1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.
  • RI.11-12.2. Determine two or more central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to provide a complex analysis; provide an objective summary of the text.
  • RI.11-12.3. Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals, ideas, or events interact and develop over the course of the text.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.9-10 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grades 9– 10
Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
Standards:

  • SL.9-10.1. Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9–10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
    • Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
    • Work with peers to set rules for collegial discussions and decision-making (e.g., informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, presentation of alternate views), clear goals and deadlines, and individual roles as needed.
    • Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others into the discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions.
    • Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.
  • SL.9-10.2. Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source.
  • SL.9-10.3. Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence. 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.11-12 Writing
Grade(s): Grades 9– 10
Cluster: Production and Distribution of Writing
Standards:

  • W.11-12.4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. 
  • W.11-12.5. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. 
  • W.11-12.6. Use technology, including the internet, to produce, publish and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.11-12 Language
Grade(s): Grades 9– 10
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.11-12.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Apply the understanding that usage is a matter of convention, can change over time and is sometimes contested.
    • Resolve issues of complex or contested usage, consulting references (e.g., Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of English Usage, Garner's Modern American Usage) as needed.
  • L.11-12.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation and spelling when writing. 
    • Observe hyphenation conventions.
    • Spell correctly.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.11-12 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grades 9– 10
Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
Standards:

  • SL.11-12.1. Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 11-12 topics, texts and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. 
    • Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
    • Work with peers to promote civil, democratic discussions and decision-making, set clear goals and deadlines and establish individual roles as needed.
    • Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that probe reasoning and evidence, ensure a hearing for a full range of positions on a topic or issue, clarify, verify or challenge ideas and conclusions and promote divergent and creative perspectives.
    • Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, synthesize comments, claims and evidence made on all sides of an issue, resolve contradictions when possible; and determine what additional information or research is required to deepen the investigation or complete the task.
  • SL.11-12.2. Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) in order to make informed decisions and solve problems, evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source and noting any discrepancies among the data. 
  • SL.11-12.3. Evaluate a speaker's point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, assessing the stance, premises, links among ideas, word choice, points of emphasis and tone used.  

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.11-12 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grades 9– 10
Cluster: Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • SL.11-12.4. Present of information, findings and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning, alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed and the organization, development, substance and style are appropriate to purpose, audience and a range of formal and informal tasks. 
  • SL.11-12.5. Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning and evidence and to add interest. 
  • SL.11-12.6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.11-12 Writing
Grade(s): Grades 9– 10
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.11-12.7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including self-generated questions) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. 
  • W.11-12.8. Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the task, purpose and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation. 
  • W.11-12.9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection and research. 
    • Apply grade 11-12 reading standards to literature (e.g., "Demonstrate knowledge of eighteenth-, nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century foundational works of American literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics").
    • Apply grade 11-12 reading standards to literary non-fiction (e.g., "Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal US texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning [e.g., in US Supreme Court Case majority opinions and dissents] and the premises, purposes and arguments in works of public advocacy [e.g., The Federalist, presidential addresses]".

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Applying Knowledge to Language
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions (e.g., spelling and punctuation), media techniques, figurative language, and genre to create, critique, and discuss print and nonprint texts.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Using Technological Information
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students use a variety of technological and information resources (e.g., libraries, databases, computer networks, video) to gather and synthesize information and to create and communicate knowledge.

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Global Connections
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • enable learners to explain how interactions among language, art, music, belief systems, and other cultural elements can facilitate global understanding or cause misunderstanding
  • help learners to explain conditions and motivations that contribute to conflict, cooperation, and interdependence among groups, societies, and nations
  • provide opportunities for learners to analyze and evaluate the effects of changing technologies on the global community
  • challenge learners to analyze the causes, consequences, and possible solutions to persistent, contemporary, and emerging global issues, such as health care, security, resource allocation, economic development, and environmental quality
  • guide learner analysis of the relationships and tensions between national sovereignty and global interests in such matters as territorial disputes, economic development, nuclear and other weapons deployment, use of natural resources, and human rights concerns
  • have learners analyze or formulate policy statements that demonstrate an understanding of concerns, standards, issues, and conflicts related to universal human rights
  • help learners to describe and evaluate the role of international and multinational organizations in the global arena
  • have learners illustrate how individual behaviors and decisions connect with global systems

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Time, Continuity, and Change
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • assist learners to understand that historical knowledge and the concept of time are socially influenced constructions that lead historians to be selective in the questions they seek to answer and the evidence they use
  • help learners apply key concepts such as time, chronology, causality, change, conflict, and complexity to explain, analyze, and show connections among patterns of historical change and continuity
  • enable learners to identify and describe significant historical periods and patterns of change within and across cultures, including but not limited to, the development of ancient cultures and civilizations, the emergence of religious belief systems, the rise of nation-states, and social, economic, and political revolutions
  • guide learners in using such processes of critical historical inquiry to reconstruct and interpret the past, such as using a variety of sources and checking their credibility, validating and weighing evidence for claims, searching for causality, and distinguishing between events and developments that are significant and those that are inconsequential
  • provide learners with opportunities to investigate, interpret, and analyze multiple historical and contemporary viewpoints within and across cultures related to important events, recurring dilemmas, and persistent issues, while employing empathy, skepticism, and critical judgment; and enable learners to apply ideas, theories, and modes of historical inquiry to analyze historical and contemporary developments, and to inform and evaluate actions concerning public policy issues.

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Production, Distribution, and Consumption
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • enable learners to explain how the scarcity of productive resources (human, capital, technological, and natural) requires the development of economic systems to make decisions about how goods and services are to be produced and distributed
  • help learners analyze the role that supply and demand, prices, incentives, and profits play in determining what is produced and distributed in a competitive market system
  • help learners compare the costs and benefits to society of allocating goods and services through private and public means
  • assist learners in understanding the relationships among the various economic institutions that comprise economic systems such as households, businesses, banks, government agencies, labor unions, and corporations
  • guide learner analysis of the role of specialization and exchange in economic processes
  • provide opportunities for learners to assess how values and beliefs influence private and public economic decisions in different societies
  • have learners compare basic economic systems according to how they deal with demand, supply, prices, the role of government, banks, labor and labor unions, savings and investments, and capital
  • challenge learners to apply economic concepts and reasoning when evaluating historical and contemporary social developments and issues
  • enable learners to distinguish between domestic and global economic systems, and explain how the two interact
  • guide learners in the application of economic concepts and principles in the analysis of public issues such as the allocation of health care or the consumption of energy, and in devising economic plans for accomplishing socially desirable outcomes related to such issues
  • help learners critically examine the values and assumptions underlying the theories and models of economics
  • help learners to distinguish between economics as a field of inquiry and the economy

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Research
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideas and questions, and by posing problems. They gather, evaluate, and synthesize data from a variety of sources (e.g., print and nonprint texts, artifacts, people) to communicate their discoveries in ways that suit their purpose and audience. 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Applying Strategies to Writing
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Applying Strategies to Text
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students apply a wide range of strategies to comprehend, interpret, evaluate, and appreciate texts. They draw on their prior experience, their interactions with other readers and writers, their knowledge of word meaning and of other texts, their word identification strategies, and their understanding of textual features (e.g., sound–letter correspondence, sentence structure, context, graphics).

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Individuals, Groups, and Institutions
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • help learners understand the concepts of role, status, and social class and use them in describing the connections and interactions of individuals, groups, and institutions in society
  • help learners analyze groups and evaluate the influences of institutions, people, events, and cultures in both historical and contemporary settings
  • help learners to understand the various forms institutions take, their functions, their relationships to one another and how they develop and change over time
  • assist learners in identifying and analyzing examples of tensions between expressions of individuality and efforts of groups and institutions to promote social conformity
  • help learners to describe and examine belief systems basic to specific traditions and laws in contemporary and historical societies
  • challenge learners to evaluate the role of institutions in furthering both continuity and change
  • guide learner analysis of the extent to which groups and institutions meet individual needs and promote the common good in contemporary and historical settings
  • assist learners as they explain and apply ideas and modes of inquiry drawn from the behavioral sciences in the examination of persistent social issues and problems

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