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It’s All in the Pattern

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Summary

Students will understand the meaning of the Zia Sun symbol. Students will understand that the Earth’s tilt and movement around the Sun causes the seasons.

Coin Type(s)

  • Quarter

Coin Program(s)

  • 50 State Quarters

Objectives

  • Students will understand the meaning of the Zia Sun symbol.
  • Students will understand that the Earth’s tilt and movement around the Sun causes the seasons.

Major Subject Area Connections

  • Language Arts
  • Math
  • Science
  • Social Studies

Grades

  • Second grade
  • Third grade

Class Time

Sessions: Five
Session Length: 30-45 minutes
Total Length: 151-500 minutes

Groupings

  • Whole group
  • Small groups
  • Individual work

Background Knowledge

Students should have a basic knowledge of:

  • 3-dimensional shapes
  • Symbol
  • Seasons
  • Solar System

Terms and Concepts

  • Quarter
  • Zia Sun symbol
  • Rotation
  • Sphere
  • International Date Line
  • Obverse (front)
  • Topographical map
  • Revolution
  • Equator
  • Reverse (back)
  • Hemisphere
  • Axis
  • Prime Meridian

Materials

  • 1 overhead projector (optional)
  • 1 overhead transparency (or photocopy) of the "New Mexico Quarter Reverse" page
  • "My Own Flag" worksheet
  • "The Earth Moves!" worksheet
  • 1 color picture or transparency of the New Mexico state flag
  • 1 class map of the United States
  • 1 copy of a text that gives information about the seasons. For example:
    • Reasons for Seasons by Gail Gibbons
    • Sunshine Makes the Seasons by Franklyn Mansfield Branley
    • What Makes the Seasons? by Megan Montague Cash
  • Computers with Internet access
  • Chart paper
  • Markers
  • Crayons
  • Watercolors
  • Pencils
  • Notebook paper
  • Globe
  • Yarn
  • Spheres of various sizes

Preparations

  • Make an overhead transparency (or photocopy) of the "New Mexico Quarter Reverse" page
  • Locate a color picture or transparency of New Mexico state flag
  • Make copies of the following:
    • "My Own Flag" worksheet (1 per student)
    • "The Earth Moves!" worksheet (1 per student)?
  • Locate a text that gives information about the seasons (see examples under "Materials").
  • Gather spheres of various sizes to use as props for skits in session 5.
  • Reserve the computer lab for one session.
  • Bookmark Internet sites that contain information about the seasons.

Worksheets and Files

Lesson plan, worksheet(s), and rubric (if any) at www.usmint.gov/kids/teachers/lessonPlans/pdf/253.pdf.

Session 1

  1. Describe the 50 State Quarters® Program for background information, if necessary, using the example of your own state, if available. Then display the transparency or photocopy of the "New Mexico Quarter Reverse" page. Locate New Mexico on a classroom map. Note its position in relation to your school’s location.
  2. Ask the students to examine the New Mexico quarter and tell you what they know about this image. Explain to the students that the image features the ancient Sun symbol of the Zia people of New Mexico over a topographical outline of New Mexico. Explain to the students that a topographical map is one that shows the natural surface features of a region, such as hills, rivers, roads, and mountains.
  3. Draw the Zia Sun symbol and a large circle on a piece of chart paper. Explain to the students that the Zia Sun symbol tells us about some of the beliefs of the Zia people from long ago. The Zia believed that the giver of all good gifts gave the Zia people gifts in groups of four. (For example, the four cardinal directions (North, East, South, and West), the four seasons of the year (spring, summer, autumn, winter), the four times of day (morning, noon, evening, and night), and four stages of life (childhood, youth, adulthood, and old age). Add some of the examples to the chart paper around the image of a circle. Tell the students that the Zia believed that they were bound together in a circle of life and love, without a beginning or end.
  4. Ask the students to think of circular symbols from their own culture to show how things happen, as the Zia did. (For example, wedding ring, clock, and compass rose).
  5. Display the color picture or transparency of the New Mexico state flag and explain to the students that flag makers often use colors and symbols to represent things that are important to the people of that area. The red and yellow colors represent Spain, which ruled New Mexico from the early 1500s through 1821.
  6. Distribute a "My Own Flag" worksheet to each student. Using the ideas on the chart paper and ideas from the New Mexico quarter reverse tell the students that they will create a personalized flag to represent themselves or their characteristics. The students will also write a few sentences below their flag describing the reason for and meaning of the colors and symbols they chose.
  7. Have the students create their flags at home to bring in and share with the class.?

Sessions 2, 3, and 4

  1. Display and discuss the students’ flags created in session 1.
  2. Display the chart paper of the Zia symbol. Review material covered in the previous session.
  3. Divide the students into small groups. Ask the students to discuss in their groups what they know about the Sun and the seasons. They should record their thoughts on a piece of notebook paper.
  4. On a piece of chart paper, create two columns labeled "The Sun" and "The Seasons." As a class, discuss the students’ ideas and record them on the chart paper. Emphasize how the earth moves around the Sun and that the Earth’s tilt and movement around the Sun causes the seasons.
  5. As a class, create a few statements about the Sun and its effect on the seasons. Record the ideas on the chart paper. Tell the students they will use this information for a project in a later session.
  6. Collect the students’ papers.
  7. Show the students a globe. Ask the students to tell you what shape the globe is (sphere). Ask the students for the definition of the term "hemisphere." Student response should be that it is half of a sphere. Use yarn to trace the Equator and point out the Northern and Southern Hemispheres on the globe. Ask the students what imaginary line separates the Northern and Southern Hemispheres (Equator).
  8. Use yarn to trace the Prime Meridian and International Date Line and point out the Eastern and Western Hemispheres on the globe. Ask the students what imaginary line separates the Eastern and Western Hemispheres (Prime Meridian and International Date Line).
  9. Introduce the students to the selected text about the seasons. As a group, preview the text. Read the selected text to the class and attend to any unfamiliar vocabulary and concepts. During the reading, students should listen for and point out any clues about the seasons. Chart the students’ ideas. After concluding the selected text, review the students’ ideas.
  10. Tell the students they will be doing research and creating a skit to show how the Earth’s tilt and movement around the Sun causes the seasons.
  11. Distribute a "The Earth Moves!" worksheet to each student. Allow the students to go to the computer lab for research, if necessary. Discuss the findings and be sure the students know to include the following information:
    • The Earth rotates on its axis.
    • The Earth revolves around the Sun.
    • Some places are tilted toward the Sun, other places are tilted away from the Sun.
    • The part of the Earth that is tilted toward the Sun receives the most direct rays.
    • The number of hours of darkness and light depend on the tilt of the Earth.?
  12. Discuss the students’ findings and record the information on chart paper. Discuss why the Sun is so important to us, and why it was important to the Zia Pueblo. Have the students share why New Mexico chose to include this symbol on the quarter design.
  13. Divide the class into small groups. Explain to the students that they will be writing a script using the information shared in class along with their research. The script will be used in a skit to be performed for the other students in the class. Encourage the use of costumes and props.
  14. Allow the students sufficient time to create their script and practice their skit. If the class is large, student groups could act out different seasons to provide variety in the skits.
  15. Display the collection of spheres for the students to utilize for their skits.
  16. Allow the students time to complete their scripts and practice their skits.
  17. Have the students perform their skits using props and costumes.
  18. Encourage the students to perform the skits for other classes.

Differentiated Learning Options

  • Make a basic Earth outline for students, including solid lines for the hemispheres and dotted lines for the Equator, International Date Line, and Prime Meridian.
  • Create a basic illustration showing the Earth’s movement around the Sun.
  • Allow students to work with a scribe to create their part of the script.

Enrichments/Extensions

  • Have students create a class quilt using each of their flag images in a square to be displayed in the school.
  • Have the students create a colored labeled diagram of how the Earth moves around the Sun and the Earth’s tilt and movement around the Sun causes the seasons.
  • Have students combine the class’s ideas and scripts to develop a class play to be performed for other classes.
  • Analyze students’ worksheets for understanding of the Zia Sun symbol and its use on New Mexico’s flag.
  • Use the students’ class participation to evaluate whether they have met the lesson objectives.
  • Assess completed scripts and skits for understanding of how the seasons are created by the interaction between the Earth and the Sun.
There are no related resources for this lesson plan.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.2 Language
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.2.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Use collective nouns (e.g., group).
    • Form and use frequently occurring irregular plural nouns (e.g., feet, children, teeth, mice, fish).
    • Use reflexive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves)
    • Form and use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs (e.g., sat, hid, told).
    • Use adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.
    • Produce, expand, and rearrange complete simple and compound sentences (e.g., The boy watched the movie; The little boy watched the movie; The action movie was watched by the little boy).
  • L.2.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Capitalize holidays, product names, and geographic names.
    • Use commas in greetings and closings of letters.
    • Use an apostrophe to form contractions and frequently occurring possessives.
    • Generalize learned spelling patterns when writing words (e.g., cage --> badge; boy --> boil).
    • Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.3 Language
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.3.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Explain the function of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in general and their functions in particular sentences.
    • Form and use regular and irregular plural nouns.
    • Use abstract nouns (e.g., childhood).
    • Form and use regular and irregular verbs.
    • Form and use the simple (e.g., I walked; I walk; I will walk) verb tenses.
    • Ensure subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement.
    • Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.
    • Use coordinating and subordinating conjunctions.
    • Produce simple, compound, and complex sentences.
  • L.3.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Capitalize appropriate words in titles.
    • Use commas in addresses.
    • Use commas and quotation marks in dialogue.
    • Form and use possessives.
    • Use conventional spelling for high-frequency and other studied words and for adding suffixes to base words (e.g., sitting, smiled, cries, happiness).
    • Use spelling patterns and generalizations (e.g., word families, position-based spellings, syllable patterns, ending rules, meaningful word parts) in writing words.
    • Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.2 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
Standards:

  • SL.2.1. Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 2 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
    • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
    • Build on others’ talk in conversations by linking their comments to the remarks of others.
    • Ask for clarification and further explanation as needed about the topics and texts under discussion.
  • SL.2.2. Recount or describe key ideas or details from a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.
  • SL.2.3. Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to clarify comprehension, gather additional information, or deepen understanding of a topic or issue. 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.2 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • SL.2.4. Tell a story or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking audibly in coherent sentences.
  • SL.2.5. Create audio recordings of stories or poems; add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.
  • SL.2.6. Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification. (See grade 2 Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.3 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
Standards:

  • SL.3.1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 3 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    • Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
    • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
    • Ask questions to check understanding of information presented, stay on topic, and link their comments to the remarks of others.
    • Explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.
  • SL.3.2. Determine the main ideas and supporting details of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
  • SL.3.3. Ask and answer questions about information from a speaker, offering appropriate elaboration and detail.
  • SL.3.4. Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking clearly at an understandable pace.
  • SL.3.5. Create engaging audio recordings of stories or poems that demonstrate fluid reading at an understandable pace; add visual displays when appropriate to emphasize or enhance certain facts or details.
  • SL.3.6. Speak in complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification. (See grade 3 Language standards 1 and 3 here for specific expectations.) 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.2 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RI.2.1. Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.
  • RI.2.2. Identify the main topic of a multi-paragraph text as well as the focus of specific paragraphs within the text.
  • RI.2.3. Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text. 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.2 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RI.2.7. Explain how specific images (e.g., a diagram showing how a machine works) contribute to and clarify a text.
  • RI.2.8. Describe how reasons support specific points the author makes in a text.
  • RI.2.9. Compare and contrast the most important points presented by two texts on the same topic.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.2 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RI.2.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 2 topic or subject area.
  • RI.2.5. Know and use various text features (e.g., captions, bold print, subheadings, glossaries, indexes, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text efficiently.
  • RI.2.6. Identify the main purpose of a text, including what the author wants to answer, explain, or describe.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.3 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RI.3.4. Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 3 topic or subject area.
  • RI.3.5. Use text features and search tools (e.g., key words, sidebars, hyperlinks) to locate information relevant to a given topic efficiently.
  • RI.3.6. Distinguish their own point of view from that of the author of a text.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.3 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RI.3.7. Use information gained from illustrations (e.g., maps, photographs) and the words in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text (e.g., where, when, why, and how key events occur).
  • RI.3.8. Describe the logical connection between particular sentences and paragraphs in a text (e.g., comparison, cause/effect, first/second/third in a sequence).
  • RI.3.9. Compare and contrast the most important points and key details presented in two texts on the same topic.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.3 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RI.3.1. Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.
  • RI.3.2. Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea.
  • RI.3.3. Describe the relationship between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.2 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.2.7. Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., read a number of books on a single topic to produce a report; record science observations).
  • W.2.8. Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
  • W.2.9. begins in grade 4.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.3 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.3.7. Conduct short research projects that build knowledge about a topic.
  • W.3.8. Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories.
  • W.3.9. begins in grade 4.

Discipline: Mathematics
Domain: All Problem Solving
Cluster: Instructional programs from kindergarten through grade 12 should enable all students to
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Build new mathematical knowledge through problem solving
  • Solve problems that arise in mathematics and in other contexts
  • Apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies to solve problems
  • Monitor and reflect on the process of mathematical problem solving

Discipline: Science
Domain: K-4 Content Standards
Cluster: Earth and Space Science
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Properties of Earth materials
  • Objects in the sky
  • Changes in earth and sky

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Science, Technology, and Society
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • enable learners to identify, describe, and examine both current and historical examples of the interaction and interdependence of science, technology, and society in a variety of cultural settings
  • provide opportunities for learners to make judgments about how science and technology have transformed the physical world and human society and our understanding of time, space, place, and human-environment interactions
  • have learners analyze the way in which science and technology influence core societal values, beliefs, and attitudes and how societal attitudes influence scientific and technological endeavors
  • prompt learners to evaluate various policies proposed to deal with social changes resulting from new technologies
  • help learners to identify and interpret various perspectives about human societies and the physical world using scientific knowledge, technologies, and an understanding of ethical standards of this and other cultures
  • encourage learners to formulate strategies and develop policy proposals pertaining to science/technology-society issues

Discipline: Visual Arts and Music
Domain: K-4 Visual Arts
Cluster: Standard 6: Making connections between visual arts and other disciplines
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students understand and use similarities and differences between characteristics of the visual arts and other arts disciplines
  • Students identify connections between the visual arts and other disciplines in the curriculum

Discipline: Science
Domain: K-4 Content Standards
Cluster: Science in Personal and Social Perspectives
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Personal health
  • Characteristics and changes in populations
  • Types of resources
  • Changes in environments
  • Science and technology in local challenges

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Culture and Cultural Diversity
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • assist learners to understand and apply the concept of culture as an integrated whole that governs the functions and interactions of language, literature, arts, traditions, beliefs, values, and behavior patterns
  • enable learners to analyze and explain how groups, societies, and cultures address human needs and concerns
  • guide learners as they predict how experiences may be interpreted by people from diverse cultural perspectives and frames of reference
  • encourage learners to compare and analyze societal patterns for transmitting and preserving culture while adapting to environmental and social change
  • enable learners to assess the importance of cultural unity and diversity within and across groups
  • have learners interpret patterns of behavior as reflecting values and attitudes which contribute to or pose obstacles to cross-cultural understanding
  • guide learners in constructing reasoned judgments about specific cultural responses to persistent human issues
  • have learners explain and apply ideas, theories, and modes of inquiry drawn from anthropology and sociology in the examination of persistent issues and social problems

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Time, Continuity, and Change
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • assist learners to understand that historical knowledge and the concept of time are socially influenced constructions that lead historians to be selective in the questions they seek to answer and the evidence they use
  • help learners apply key concepts such as time, chronology, causality, change, conflict, and complexity to explain, analyze, and show connections among patterns of historical change and continuity
  • enable learners to identify and describe significant historical periods and patterns of change within and across cultures, including but not limited to, the development of ancient cultures and civilizations, the emergence of religious belief systems, the rise of nation-states, and social, economic, and political revolutions
  • guide learners in using such processes of critical historical inquiry to reconstruct and interpret the past, such as using a variety of sources and checking their credibility, validating and weighing evidence for claims, searching for causality, and distinguishing between events and developments that are significant and those that are inconsequential
  • provide learners with opportunities to investigate, interpret, and analyze multiple historical and contemporary viewpoints within and across cultures related to important events, recurring dilemmas, and persistent issues, while employing empathy, skepticism, and critical judgment; and enable learners to apply ideas, theories, and modes of historical inquiry to analyze historical and contemporary developments, and to inform and evaluate actions concerning public policy issues.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Use of Spoken, Written, and Visual Language
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).

Discipline: Visual Arts and Music
Domain: K-4 Visual Arts
Cluster: Standard 1: Understanding and applying media, techniques, and processes
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students know the differences between materials, techniques, and processes
  • Students describe how different materials, techniques, and processes cause different responses
  • Students use different media, techniques, and processes to communicate ideas, experiences, and stories
  • Students use art materials and tools in a safe and responsible manner

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Applying Strategies to Writing
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes.

Discipline: Mathematics
Domain: All Communication
Cluster: Instructional programs from kindergarten through grade 12 should enable all students to
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • organize and consolidate their mathematical thinking through communication 
  • communicate their mathematical thinking coherently and clearly to peers, teachers, and others;
  • analyze and evaluate the mathematical thinking and strategies of others; and
  • use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas precisely.   

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Effective Communication
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes.

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: People, Places, and Environment
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • Enable learners to use, interpret, and distinguish various representations of Earth such as maps, globes, and photographs, and to use appropriate geographic tools
  • Encourage learners to construct, use, and refine maps and mental maps, calculate distance, scale, area, and density, and organize information about people, places, regions, and environments in a spatial context
  • Help learners to locate, distinguish, and describe the relationships among varying regional and global patterns of physical systems such as landforms, climate, and natural resources, and explain changes in the physical systems
  • Guide learners in exploring characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth’s surface
  • Have learners describe how people create places that reflect culture, human needs, current values and ideals, and government policies
  • Provide opportunities for learners to examine, interpret, and analyze interactions of human beings and their physical environments, and to observe and analyze social and economic effects of environmental changes, both positive and negative
  • Challenge learners to consider, compare, and evaluate existing uses of resources and land in communities, regions, countries, and the world
  • Direct learners to explore ways in which Earth’s physical features have changed over time, and describe and assess ways historical events have influenced and been influenced by physical and human geographic features

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