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Can You Adapt?

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Summary

Students will understand that behavioral and physical adaptations allow animals to respond to life needs, which include methods of gathering and storing food, finding shelter, defending themselves, and rearing young.

Coin Type(s)

  • Quarter

Coin Program(s)

  • 50 State Quarters

Objectives

Students will understand that behavioral and physical adaptations allow animals to respond to life needs, which include methods of gathering and storing food, finding shelter, defending themselves, and rearing young.

Major Subject Area Connections

  • Science
  • Social Studies

Grades

  • Second grade
  • Third grade

Class Time

Sessions: Three
Session Length: 30-45 minutes
Total Length: 91-120 minutes

Groupings

  • Whole group
  • Small groups
  • Pairs
  • Individual work

Background Knowledge

Students should have a basic knowledge of:

  • Shelter
  • Environment
  • Herding
  • Predator
  • Hibernation
  • Rectangular
  • Prey
  • Migration
  • Hexagonal

Terms and Concepts

  • Quarter
  • Mountain
  • Adaptations
  • Obverse (front)
  • Physical adaptation
  • Relief Map
  • Reverse (back)
  • Behavioral adaptation
  • Landform

Materials

  • 1 overhead projector (optional)
  • 1 overhead transparency (or photocopy) of the "Montana Quarter Reverse" page
  • "Animal Adaptations" worksheets
  • "Golden Eagle Adaptations Web" worksheet
  • 1 class map of the United States
  • 1 relief map of Montana or the United States
  • 1 copy of a text that gives information about mountains, such as:
    • The Living World: Mountains by Clive Catchpole
    • Living in the Mountains by Trudy J. Hammer
    • Mountains by Dougal Dixon
    • Mountains by Philip Sauvain
  • 1 copy of a text that gives information about golden eagles, such as:
    • The Book of Eagles by Helen Roney Sattler
    • Eagles by Aubrey Long
    • Birds of Prey by Jill Bailey
  • Chart paper
  • Markers (two colors)
  • Pictures of golden eagles and other animals that live in Montana (grizzly bear, Rocky Mountain goat, deer, moose, bison, elk)

Preparations

  • Make an overhead transparency (or photocopy) of the "Montana Quarter Reverse" page.
  • Make copies of each of the "Animal Adaptations" worksheets (1 per student). There are 5different sheets, so make enough copies for each student to have 1 animal.
  • Make copies of the "Golden Eagle Adaptations Web" worksheet (1 per student)
  • Locate a text that gives information about mountains (see examples under "Materials").
  • Locate a text that gives information about golden eagles (see examples under "Materials").
  • Gather pictures or images of the golden eagle and other animals found in Montana (see"Materials").

Worksheets and Files

Lesson plan, worksheet(s), and rubric (if any) at www.usmint.gov/kids/teachers/lessonPlans/pdf/258.pdf.

Session 1

  1. Describe the 50 State Quarters® Program for background information, if necessary, using the example of your own state, if available. Then display the transparency or photocopy of the "Montana Quarter Reverse" page. Tell the students that the back of the coin is also called the reverse, and "obverse" is another name for the front of a coin. Locate Montanaon a classroom map. Note its position in relation to your school’s location.
  2. With the students, examine the design on this coin’s reverse. Have the students identify the images and writing included in this coin design. Focus the students’ attention on the mountain featured on the coin. Explain to the students that Montana means "mountain" in Spanish. Ask the students why these symbols may have been chosen. (There are a lot of mountains in Montana.) Show the students a relief map of Montana or the United States. Explain that a relief map shows how high and low the land is. It shows mountains and valleys. Explain to the students that much of the western portion of Montana is covered by the Rocky Mountains.
  3. Tell the students that a mountain is an example of a landform. Explain to the students that a landform is any natural physical feature of the earth’s surface. Ask the students for words that can be used to describe mountains. Start a web with the word "mountain" in the center on the chart paper.
  4. Introduce the students to the selected text about mountains. As a group, preview the text. Read the text aloud to the students. Attend to unfamiliar vocabulary and concepts.
  5. During the reading, have the students add words to the web that describe mountains. Include animals and plants found there.
  6. Have the students use the words from the web and write a few sentences or a short paragraph describing the mountains on writing paper. Have them illustrate their writing.

Session 2

  1. Review the web and text from the previous session. Have students recall from the reading the names of animals or plants that live in the mountains.
  2. Ask the students what might possibly make the mountains a harsh environment to live in. Refer back to the web from the previous session (cold weather, lack of vegetation, strong winds).
  3. Show pictures of various animals and plants that live in the mountains. Explain that these animals have had to adapt to the harsh environment that can be found in the mountains. An adaptation helps an animal to survive. Adaptations help the animals find and catch food, find shelter, defend themselves from other animals, and even help them raise their young.
  4. Explain to the students that there are two types of adaptations: physical and behavioral. Physical adaptations help animals survive in their environment and includes fur, sense of smell, and claws. Physical adaptations are things an animal has. Behavioral adaptations allow animals to respond to life needs and include hibernation, migration, and herding. Behavioral adaptations are what an animal does.
  5. Divide the students into small groups. Give each group a piece of chart paper and show them how to make a T-chart with the columns labeled "Physical" and "Behavioral." Have them brainstorm some physical and behavioral adaptations and record their ideas on theT-chart. Have each group share its ideas and charts with the class.
  6. Explain to the students that Montana has a very large population of golden eagles. Show the students a picture of the golden eagle.
  7. Attach a picture of a golden eagle on chart paper to use as the center for a web. Distribute copies of the "Golden Eagle Adaptations Web" worksheet to the students.
  8. Explain to the students that they will be identifying some physical and behavioral adaptations of the golden eagle.
  9. Introduce the students to the selected text about golden eagles. As a group, preview the text. Read the text aloud to the students. Attend to unfamiliar vocabulary and concepts.
  10. 10.As you are reading, have the students add adaptations to the "Golden Eagles Adaptations Web" worksheet. Have the students write physical adaptations in the rectangular blocks and behavioral adaptations in the hexagonal blocks.
  11. Discuss the adaptations the students have written on their worksheets. Complete a class web using the chart paper with the golden eagle in the center.

Session 3

  1. Review the web on adaptations from the previous session. Distribute the "Animal Adaptations" worksheets to the students. (There are 5 different sheets, so run off enough for each student to have 1 animal. Try to have an even number of students assigned to each animal so they can pair up later.) Explain that the students will be looking at several different animals that are found in the mountains of Montana. They are to look at the pictures and read the text on the worksheets. They are to identify some physical and behavioral adaptations and list these in the boxes on the page.
  2. Allow time for the students to complete their worksheets.
  3. Have students who have the same animal pair up and share their findings with each other. Have the students add to their lists.
  4. After the pairs have shared with each other, have the pairs present to the entire class.
  5. As the pairs are presenting, make a list of the adaptations on chart paper, one page for each animal.
  6. Display the transparency or photocopy of the "Montana Quarter Reverse" page. Discuss the fact that animals and plants have to adapt to their environment in order to survive. Explain to the students that mountains are just one example of an environment to which animals must adapt. There are others such as deserts, grasslands, and forests, ponds, marshes, swamps, rivers, and oceans.

Differentiated Learning Options

  • While they are working on the worksheets, have someone read the text to the students.
  • Have students work in pairs to complete the "Animal Adaptations" sheets.

Enrichments/Extensions

  • Have students research other animals or plants and identify what adaptations help them to survive.
  • Have students compare two similar animals and their adaptations using a Venn diagram.
  • Have students highlight all the adjectives they use to describe the animals’ adaptations.
  • Download the "Additional Resources" file from the 50 State Quarters Lesson Plans page at www.usmint.gov/kids/index.cfm?fileContents=teachers/lessonPlans/download.cfm. Have students examine the page of quarter reverses provided to identify other plants and animals that have been featured on quarters.

Use the students’ class participation, the "Animal Adaptations" worksheets, and the "Golden Eagle Adaptations Web" worksheets to evaluate whether they have met the lesson objectives.

There are no related resources for this lesson plan.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.2 Language
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.2.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Use collective nouns (e.g., group).
    • Form and use frequently occurring irregular plural nouns (e.g., feet, children, teeth, mice, fish).
    • Use reflexive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves)
    • Form and use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs (e.g., sat, hid, told).
    • Use adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.
    • Produce, expand, and rearrange complete simple and compound sentences (e.g., The boy watched the movie; The little boy watched the movie; The action movie was watched by the little boy).
  • L.2.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Capitalize holidays, product names, and geographic names.
    • Use commas in greetings and closings of letters.
    • Use an apostrophe to form contractions and frequently occurring possessives.
    • Generalize learned spelling patterns when writing words (e.g., cage --> badge; boy --> boil).
    • Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.3 Language
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.3.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Explain the function of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in general and their functions in particular sentences.
    • Form and use regular and irregular plural nouns.
    • Use abstract nouns (e.g., childhood).
    • Form and use regular and irregular verbs.
    • Form and use the simple (e.g., I walked; I walk; I will walk) verb tenses.
    • Ensure subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement.
    • Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.
    • Use coordinating and subordinating conjunctions.
    • Produce simple, compound, and complex sentences.
  • L.3.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Capitalize appropriate words in titles.
    • Use commas in addresses.
    • Use commas and quotation marks in dialogue.
    • Form and use possessives.
    • Use conventional spelling for high-frequency and other studied words and for adding suffixes to base words (e.g., sitting, smiled, cries, happiness).
    • Use spelling patterns and generalizations (e.g., word families, position-based spellings, syllable patterns, ending rules, meaningful word parts) in writing words.
    • Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.2 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • SL.2.4. Tell a story or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking audibly in coherent sentences.
  • SL.2.5. Create audio recordings of stories or poems; add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.
  • SL.2.6. Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification. (See grade 2 Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.3 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
Standards:

  • SL.3.1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 3 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    • Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
    • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
    • Ask questions to check understanding of information presented, stay on topic, and link their comments to the remarks of others.
    • Explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.
  • SL.3.2. Determine the main ideas and supporting details of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
  • SL.3.3. Ask and answer questions about information from a speaker, offering appropriate elaboration and detail.
  • SL.3.4. Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking clearly at an understandable pace.
  • SL.3.5. Create engaging audio recordings of stories or poems that demonstrate fluid reading at an understandable pace; add visual displays when appropriate to emphasize or enhance certain facts or details.
  • SL.3.6. Speak in complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification. (See grade 3 Language standards 1 and 3 here for specific expectations.) 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.2 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RI.2.1. Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.
  • RI.2.2. Identify the main topic of a multi-paragraph text as well as the focus of specific paragraphs within the text.
  • RI.2.3. Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text. 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.2 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RI.2.7. Explain how specific images (e.g., a diagram showing how a machine works) contribute to and clarify a text.
  • RI.2.8. Describe how reasons support specific points the author makes in a text.
  • RI.2.9. Compare and contrast the most important points presented by two texts on the same topic.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.2 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RI.2.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 2 topic or subject area.
  • RI.2.5. Know and use various text features (e.g., captions, bold print, subheadings, glossaries, indexes, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text efficiently.
  • RI.2.6. Identify the main purpose of a text, including what the author wants to answer, explain, or describe.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.3 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RI.3.4. Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 3 topic or subject area.
  • RI.3.5. Use text features and search tools (e.g., key words, sidebars, hyperlinks) to locate information relevant to a given topic efficiently.
  • RI.3.6. Distinguish their own point of view from that of the author of a text.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.3 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RI.3.7. Use information gained from illustrations (e.g., maps, photographs) and the words in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text (e.g., where, when, why, and how key events occur).
  • RI.3.8. Describe the logical connection between particular sentences and paragraphs in a text (e.g., comparison, cause/effect, first/second/third in a sequence).
  • RI.3.9. Compare and contrast the most important points and key details presented in two texts on the same topic.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.3 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RI.3.1. Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.
  • RI.3.2. Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea.
  • RI.3.3. Describe the relationship between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.2 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.2.7. Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., read a number of books on a single topic to produce a report; record science observations).
  • W.2.8. Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
  • W.2.9. begins in grade 4.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.3 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.3.7. Conduct short research projects that build knowledge about a topic.
  • W.3.8. Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories.
  • W.3.9. begins in grade 4.

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Science, Technology, and Society
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • enable learners to identify, describe, and examine both current and historical examples of the interaction and interdependence of science, technology, and society in a variety of cultural settings
  • provide opportunities for learners to make judgments about how science and technology have transformed the physical world and human society and our understanding of time, space, place, and human-environment interactions
  • have learners analyze the way in which science and technology influence core societal values, beliefs, and attitudes and how societal attitudes influence scientific and technological endeavors
  • prompt learners to evaluate various policies proposed to deal with social changes resulting from new technologies
  • help learners to identify and interpret various perspectives about human societies and the physical world using scientific knowledge, technologies, and an understanding of ethical standards of this and other cultures
  • encourage learners to formulate strategies and develop policy proposals pertaining to science/technology-society issues

Discipline: Science
Domain: K-4 Content Standards
Cluster: Life Science
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Characteristics of organisms
  • Life cycles of organisms
  • Organisms and environments

Discipline: Science
Domain: K-4 Content Standards
Cluster: Science as Inquiry
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Ability necessary to do scientific inquiry
  • Understand scientific inquiry

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: People, Places, and Environment
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • Enable learners to use, interpret, and distinguish various representations of Earth such as maps, globes, and photographs, and to use appropriate geographic tools
  • Encourage learners to construct, use, and refine maps and mental maps, calculate distance, scale, area, and density, and organize information about people, places, regions, and environments in a spatial context
  • Help learners to locate, distinguish, and describe the relationships among varying regional and global patterns of physical systems such as landforms, climate, and natural resources, and explain changes in the physical systems
  • Guide learners in exploring characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth’s surface
  • Have learners describe how people create places that reflect culture, human needs, current values and ideals, and government policies
  • Provide opportunities for learners to examine, interpret, and analyze interactions of human beings and their physical environments, and to observe and analyze social and economic effects of environmental changes, both positive and negative
  • Challenge learners to consider, compare, and evaluate existing uses of resources and land in communities, regions, countries, and the world
  • Direct learners to explore ways in which Earth’s physical features have changed over time, and describe and assess ways historical events have influenced and been influenced by physical and human geographic features

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