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Follow the Leader

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Summary

Students will understand the roles of national leaders. Students will identify the three branches of government and their duties.

Coin Type(s)

  • Quarter

Coin Program(s)

  • 50 State Quarters

Objectives

  • Students will understand the roles of national leaders.
  • Students will identify the three branches of government and their duties.

Major Subject Area Connections

  • Art
  • Language Arts
  • Social Studies

Grades

  • Second grade
  • Third grade

Class Time

Sessions: Four
Session Length: 30-45 minutes
Total Length: 121-150 minutes

Groupings

  • Whole group
  • Small groups
  • Pairs
  • Individual work

Background Knowledge

Students should have a basic knowledge of:

  • Presidents
  • George Washington
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • Abraham Lincoln
  • Characteristics
  • Timelines
  • Symbols

Terms and Concepts

  • Government
  • Mount Rushmore
  • Monument
  • Constitution
  • Supreme Court
  • Congress
  • President
  • Theodore Roosevelt
  • Legislative
  • Executive
  • Judicial
  • Patriotic

Materials

  • 1 overhead projector
  • 1 overhead transparency of each of the following:
    • “South Dakota Quarter Reverse” page (or photocopy)
    • “Three Branches Organizer” worksheet
  • Copies of the following worksheets:
    • “What’s Their Role?”
    • “Three Branches Organizer”
    • “Mobile Patterns”
  • 1 class map of the United States
  • Chart paper
  • Markers
  • Locate a copy of a text that gives basic information about the government and its leaders, such as:
    • America: A Patriotic Primer by Lynne Cheney
    • House Mouse Senate Mouse by Peter Barnes and Cheryl Barnes
    • How the U.S. Government Works by Syl Sobel and Pam Tanzey
    • Vote! by Eileen Christelow
    • My Teacher For President by Kay Winters
    • D is for Democracy: A Citizen’s Alphabet by Elissa Grodin
  • Images of Mount Rushmore, the Capitol building, the White House, and the Supreme Court
  • Red, white, and blue construction paper
  • Pencils
  • Scissors
  • Yarn
  • Hole punch
  • Coat hangers
  • Tape

Preparations

  • Make copies of the following:
    • “Three Branches Organizer” worksheet (1 per student)
    • “Mobile Patterns” worksheet (1 per student)
  • Make an overhead transparency of each of the following:
    • “South Dakota Quarter Reverse” page
    • “Three Branches Organizer” worksheet
  • Locate texts that give basic information about the government and its leaders (see examples under “Materials”).
  • Gather images of Mount Rushmore, the Capitol building, the White House, and the Supreme Court Building to display in the classroom.
  • Gather coat hangers (1 per student) for the activity in Session 4.
  • Create a model mobile before Session 4.
  • Cut out the patterns for the mobiles in Session 4 (optional).

Worksheets and Files

Lesson plan, worksheet(s), and rubric (if any) at www.usmint.gov/kids/teachers/lessonPlans/pdf/268.pdf.

Session 1

  1. Describe the 50 State Quarters® Program for background information, if necessary, using the example of your own state, if available. Locate South Dakota on a classroom map. Note its position in relation to your school’s location.
  2. Display the “South Dakota Quarter Reverse” transparency or photocopy. Have the students identify and discuss the images, including George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Abraham Lincoln.
  3. Lead a class discussion regarding the presidents’ images. Display the images of Mount Rushmore. Explain to the students that the image of the Presidents on the coin is part of a monument (a reminder of someone or something notable, or a memorial stone or a building erected in remembrance of a person or event) called “Mount Rushmore.” Write the name “Mount Rushmore” above the term “monument” and its definition on chart paper.
  4. Ask the students what all of these men have in common. Students should respond that they were all Presidents of the United States. Briefly discuss each president. Talk about when they were in office and what they are most known for.
  5. On a piece of chart paper, create a timeline and as a class, write in the names of the presidents shown on Mount Rushmore according to when they were in office on the timeline (Washington 1789–1797, Jefferson 1801–1809, Lincoln 1861–1865, and Theodore Roosevelt 1901–1909). Add other facts about the men based on class discussions, such as:
    • Washington helped the nation achieve its independence from England.
    • Jefferson was responsible for the Louisiana Purchase and, as a result, doubled the size of the nation.
    • Roosevelt oversaw the completion of the Panama Canal, which connected the waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
    • Lincoln saw the nation through the Civil War and worked to keep the states together in one Union.
  6. Discuss the meaning of the term “president,” directing them to realize that the nation’s president is the leader of all of the people of the country. Explain to the students that a president is much like the principal of a school, who leads the teachers and students. Ask the students who the current President of the United States is and add the name to the chart paper.
  7. Create a class list of some of the jobs the nation’s president does and record them on chart paper.
  8. As a class, discuss the term “government” (a group that makes laws and keeps order) and why it’s important for a country to have one.
  9. Invite the students to brainstorm the names of other presidents with whom they may be familiar.

Session 2

  1. Review the material covered in Session 1.
  2. Introduce the students to the selected text about the government and its leaders. As a group, preview the text and illustrations to generate observations about what is occurring at different points in the text. Read the selected text to the class and attend to any unfamiliar vocabulary.
  3. Explain to the students that our government has leaders, but also has three branches to divide up the work fairly and help protect the rights of the people. A document called the Constitution describes the job of each branch.
  4. Distribute a “Three Branches Organizer” worksheet to each student. Explain that this is their note-taking guide.
  5. Display the “Three Branches Organizer” overhead transparency. Fill in the information on the transparency during the following discussion. Review the term “government” and fill in the definition.
  6. Tell the students that there are three “branches” or parts of our government.
    • The legislative branch makes the laws for the nation. The members of Congress are elected by the people. Congress is divided into two sections: Senators serve in the Senate and Representatives serve in the House of Representatives.
    • The executive branch carries out the laws. The President is in charge of this branch.
    • The judicial branch decides what the laws mean. The nine judges of the Supreme Court lead this branch.
  7. Have the students get into pairs and briefly review and discuss the notes from the “Three Branches Organizer.”
  8. Collect the students’ organizers.

Session 3

  1. Redistribute the “Three Branches Organizer” to the students. Review the material covered in the first two sessions.
  2. Display the “South Dakota Quarter Reverse” transparency or photocopy. Remind the students that Mount Rushmore is an example of a national monument, and of a symbol of patriotism.
  3. On a piece of chart paper, write the term “symbol” and ask the students to give you a definition. (A symbol is something that stands for something else). Explain that many of our symbols are patriotic (showing love for our country).
  4. As a class, brainstorm other symbols of patriotism found in the United States. Record student responses on the chart paper. Responses can include the Washington Monument, the Lincoln Memorial, the bald eagle, the American flag, and the Statue of Liberty.
  5. Review the answers as a class. Discuss where each symbol can be found in the United States, and why it is important to the people of this country.
  6. Using the class discussion as a guide, have the students complete the building column of the “Three Branches Organizer.” (Capitol building for Legislative, White House for Executive, and Supreme Court Building for Judicial.)
  7. Have the students write a paragraph summarizing why it’s important for our country to have patriotic symbols.
  8. Collect the students’ worksheets.

Session 4

  1. Review the charts and information from the previous sessions.
  2. Tell the students they will be creating something to visually show what they have learned about the branches of government and symbols of our country.
  3. Show the students the mobile created as a model. Explain to the students that the term “government” is at the top. The names of the three branches, duties, and leaders are all shown on the mobile.
  4. Distribute the “Three Branches Organizer” and “Mobile Patterns” worksheets to the students. Explain that the mobile they will make will use these sheets.
  5. Show the students the patterns for each part of the mobile. Explain that the patterns can be traced on construction paper and cut out, making three of each shape so that each branch has one of each shape. On each circle, they will write the name of a branch. The stars that hang below the circles will tell what person or group leads each branch and the term of office. The squares will show the branch’s duties. The students will draw the building in which each branch works on the triangles at the end of each set. Have them fill in the definition of the word “government” on the worksheet, cut out this box, and tape it to the top of the hanger as shown in the small diagram.
  6. Have the scissors, construction paper, hole punch, coat hangers, and other supplies in a central location for student access.
  7. Allow time for the students to complete and construct their mobiles.
  8. Display the mobiles in the classroom.

Differentiated Learning Options

  • Allow students to use a scribe for written responses.
  • Prepare the written portions of the mobile ahead of time and students can cut and glue the words to the shapes.
  • Provide images of the federal buildings for the students to use in their mobiles.

Enrichments/Extensions

  • Have students sing patriotic songs such as “America the Beautiful” and “The Star Spangled Banner.”
  • Invite students to create a sculpture of their favorite United States President using modeling clay.
  • Have students find the size of parts of Mount Rushmore (i.e., Washington’s sculptured nose is 20 feet long). Create a list and use measuring tools to demonstrate how large those measurements actually are. Have them measure their own corresponding features and, in small groups, compare the size of an actual feature to the feature on the monument.
  • Tell the students that George Washington also oversaw the design and building of the White House. Explain to the students that the original stone that was used over 200 years ago to build the White House is still in place today. Lead the students on an exploration of the White House, past and present, at www.whitehouse.gov/history/life/.
  • Take anecdotal notes about the students’ participation in class discussions.
  • Evaluate the students’ worksheets and mobiles for achievement of the lesson’s objectives.
There are no related resources for this lesson plan.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.3 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Text Types and Purposes
Standards:

  • W.3.1. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons.
    • Introduce the topic or text they are writing about, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure that lists reasons.
    • Provide reasons that support the opinion.
    • Use linking words and phrases (e.g., because, therefore, since, for example) to connect opinion and reasons.
    • Provide a concluding statement or section.
  • W.3.2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
    • Introduce a topic and group related information together; include illustrations when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • Develop the topic with facts, definitions, and details.
    • Use linking words and phrases (e.g., also, another, and, more, but) to connect ideas within categories of information.
    • Provide a concluding statement or section.
  • W.3.3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
    • Establish a situation and introduce a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
    • Use dialogue and descriptions of actions, thoughts, and feelings to develop experiences and events or show the response of characters to situations.
    • Use temporal words and phrases to signal event order.
    • Provide a sense of closure.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.2 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Text Types and Purposes
Standards:

  • W.2.1. Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words (e.g., because, and, also) to connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement or section.
  • W.2.2. Write informative/explanatory texts in which they introduce a topic, use facts and definitions to develop points, and provide a concluding statement or section.
  • W.2.3. Write narratives in which they recount a well-elaborated event or short sequence of events, include details to describe actions, thoughts, and feelings, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide a sense of closure.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.2 Language
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.2.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Use collective nouns (e.g., group).
    • Form and use frequently occurring irregular plural nouns (e.g., feet, children, teeth, mice, fish).
    • Use reflexive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves)
    • Form and use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs (e.g., sat, hid, told).
    • Use adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.
    • Produce, expand, and rearrange complete simple and compound sentences (e.g., The boy watched the movie; The little boy watched the movie; The action movie was watched by the little boy).
  • L.2.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Capitalize holidays, product names, and geographic names.
    • Use commas in greetings and closings of letters.
    • Use an apostrophe to form contractions and frequently occurring possessives.
    • Generalize learned spelling patterns when writing words (e.g., cage --> badge; boy --> boil).
    • Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.3 Language
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.3.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Explain the function of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in general and their functions in particular sentences.
    • Form and use regular and irregular plural nouns.
    • Use abstract nouns (e.g., childhood).
    • Form and use regular and irregular verbs.
    • Form and use the simple (e.g., I walked; I walk; I will walk) verb tenses.
    • Ensure subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement.
    • Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.
    • Use coordinating and subordinating conjunctions.
    • Produce simple, compound, and complex sentences.
  • L.3.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Capitalize appropriate words in titles.
    • Use commas in addresses.
    • Use commas and quotation marks in dialogue.
    • Form and use possessives.
    • Use conventional spelling for high-frequency and other studied words and for adding suffixes to base words (e.g., sitting, smiled, cries, happiness).
    • Use spelling patterns and generalizations (e.g., word families, position-based spellings, syllable patterns, ending rules, meaningful word parts) in writing words.
    • Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.2 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • SL.2.4. Tell a story or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking audibly in coherent sentences.
  • SL.2.5. Create audio recordings of stories or poems; add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.
  • SL.2.6. Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification. (See grade 2 Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.3 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
Standards:

  • SL.3.1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 3 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    • Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
    • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
    • Ask questions to check understanding of information presented, stay on topic, and link their comments to the remarks of others.
    • Explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.
  • SL.3.2. Determine the main ideas and supporting details of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
  • SL.3.3. Ask and answer questions about information from a speaker, offering appropriate elaboration and detail.
  • SL.3.4. Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking clearly at an understandable pace.
  • SL.3.5. Create engaging audio recordings of stories or poems that demonstrate fluid reading at an understandable pace; add visual displays when appropriate to emphasize or enhance certain facts or details.
  • SL.3.6. Speak in complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification. (See grade 3 Language standards 1 and 3 here for specific expectations.) 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.2 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RI.2.1. Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.
  • RI.2.2. Identify the main topic of a multi-paragraph text as well as the focus of specific paragraphs within the text.
  • RI.2.3. Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text. 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.2 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RI.2.7. Explain how specific images (e.g., a diagram showing how a machine works) contribute to and clarify a text.
  • RI.2.8. Describe how reasons support specific points the author makes in a text.
  • RI.2.9. Compare and contrast the most important points presented by two texts on the same topic.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.2 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RI.2.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 2 topic or subject area.
  • RI.2.5. Know and use various text features (e.g., captions, bold print, subheadings, glossaries, indexes, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text efficiently.
  • RI.2.6. Identify the main purpose of a text, including what the author wants to answer, explain, or describe.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.3 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RI.3.4. Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 3 topic or subject area.
  • RI.3.5. Use text features and search tools (e.g., key words, sidebars, hyperlinks) to locate information relevant to a given topic efficiently.
  • RI.3.6. Distinguish their own point of view from that of the author of a text.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.3 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RI.3.7. Use information gained from illustrations (e.g., maps, photographs) and the words in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text (e.g., where, when, why, and how key events occur).
  • RI.3.8. Describe the logical connection between particular sentences and paragraphs in a text (e.g., comparison, cause/effect, first/second/third in a sequence).
  • RI.3.9. Compare and contrast the most important points and key details presented in two texts on the same topic.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.3 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RI.3.1. Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.
  • RI.3.2. Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea.
  • RI.3.3. Describe the relationship between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.2 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.2.7. Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., read a number of books on a single topic to produce a report; record science observations).
  • W.2.8. Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
  • W.2.9. begins in grade 4.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.2 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Production and Distribution of Writing
Standards:

  • W.2.4. begins in grade 3.
  • W.2.5. With guidance and support from adults and peers, focus on a topic and strengthen writing as needed by revising and editing.
  • W.2.6. With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.3 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.3.7. Conduct short research projects that build knowledge about a topic.
  • W.3.8. Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories.
  • W.3.9. begins in grade 4.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.3 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 3
Cluster: Production and Distribution of Writing
Standards:

  • W.3.4. With guidance and support from adults, produce writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task and purpose. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3.)
  • W.3.5. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grade 3.)
  • W.3.6. With guidance and support from adults, use technology to produce and publish writing (using keyboarding skills) as well as to interact and collaborate with others.

Discipline: Visual Arts and Music
Domain: K-4 Visual Arts
Cluster: Standard 6: Making connections between visual arts and other disciplines
Grade(s): Grades K–4
Standards:

  • Students understand and use similarities and differences between characteristics of the visual arts and other arts disciplines
  • Students identify connections between the visual arts and other disciplines in the curriculum

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Use of Spoken, Written, and Visual Language
Grade(s): Grades K–4
Standards:

  • Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).

Discipline: Visual Arts and Music
Domain: K-4 Visual Arts
Cluster: Standard 1: Understanding and applying media, techniques, and processes
Grade(s): Grades K–4
Standards:

  • Students know the differences between materials, techniques, and processes
  • Students describe how different materials, techniques, and processes cause different responses
  • Students use different media, techniques, and processes to communicate ideas, experiences, and stories
  • Students use art materials and tools in a safe and responsible manner

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Civic Ideals and Practices
Grade(s): Grades K–4
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • assist learners in understanding the origins and continuing influence of key ideals of the democratic republican form of government, such as individual human dignity, liberty, justice, equality, and the rule of law
  • guide learner efforts to identify, analyze, interpret, and evaluate sources and examples of citizens’ rights and responsibilities
  • facilitate learner efforts to locate, access, analyze, organize, synthesize, evaluate, and apply information about selected public issues—identifying, describing, and evaluating multiple points of view and taking reasoned positions on such issues
  • provide opportunities for learners to practice forms of civic discussion and participation consistent with the ideals of citizens in a democratic republic
  • help learners to analyze and evaluate the influence of various forms of citizen action on public policy
  • prepare learners to analyze a variety of public policies and issues from the perspective of formal and informal political actors
  • guide learners as they evaluate the effectiveness of public opinion in influencing and shaping public policy development and decision-making
  • encourage learner efforts to evaluate the degree to which public policies and citizen behaviors reflect or foster the stated ideals of a democratic republican form of government
  • support learner efforts to construct policy statements and action plans to achieve goals related to issues of public concern
  • create opportunities for learner participation in activities to strengthen the “common good,” based upon careful evaluation of possible options for citizen action

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Power, Authority, and Governance
Grade(s): Grades K–4
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • enable learners to examine the rights and responsibilities of the individual in relation to their families, their social groups, their community, and their nation; help students to understand the purpose of government and how its powers are acquired, used, and justified
  • provide opportunities for learners to examine issues involving the rights, roles, and status of individuals in relation to the general welfare
  • enable learners to describe the ways nations and organizations respond to forces of unity and diversity affecting order and security
  • have learners explain conditions, actions, and motivations that contribute to conflict and cooperation within and among nations
  • help learners to analyze and explain governmental mechanisms to meet the needs and wants of citizens, regulate territory, manage conflict, and establish order and security
  • have learners identify and describe the basic features of the American political system, and identify representative leaders from various levels and branches of government
  • challenge learners to apply concepts such as power, role, status, justice, democratic values, and influence to the examination of persistent issues and social problems guide learners to explain and evaluate how governments attempt to achieve their stated ideals at home and abroad

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Applying Strategies to Writing
Grade(s): Grades K–4
Standards:

  • Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Applying Strategies to Text
Grade(s): Grades K–4
Standards:

  • Students apply a wide range of strategies to comprehend, interpret, evaluate, and appreciate texts. They draw on their prior experience, their interactions with other readers and writers, their knowledge of word meaning and of other texts, their word identification strategies, and their understanding of textual features (e.g., sound–letter correspondence, sentence structure, context, graphics).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Effective Communication
Grade(s): Grades K–4
Standards:

  • Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes.