# Great Graphs! (1999 grades 2 and 3)

### Summary

Students will learn to create graphs by tabulating their preferences among the 10 state quarters.

### Coin Type(s)

- Quarter

### Coin Program(s)

- 50 State Quarters

### Objectives

- Students will learn to create graphs by tabulating their preferences among 10 state quarters.

### Major Subject Area Connections

- Math
- Social Studies

### Grades

- Second grade
- Third grade

### Class Time

**Sessions**: One

**Session Length**:
30-45 minutes

**Total Length**:
0-45 minutes

### Groupings

- Whole group

### Terms and Concepts

- Bar graph
- Picture graph
- Survey

### Materials

- Copies of the "Favorite Quarters" sheet (page 4), one per student (or use overhead)
- Copies of the "Building a Graph" sheet (page 5), one per student
- Two lunch bags or other type of bag
- Crayons or markers
- Small slips of paper
- Overhead of 10 quarters from "Reproducible Coin Sheets" (pages 31 and 32), if needed

### Preparations

- Draw basic graph (x and y axis) on a large paper or on the board.
- Collect examples of bar and/or picture graphs, if desired.
- Review lesson.

### Worksheets and Files

Lesson plan, worksheet(s), and rubric (if any) at www.usmint.gov/kids/teachers/lessonPlans/300-305.pdf.

### Part 1: Class Example

- Have students talk about what a graph is for and what can be shown in a graph. As a class, brainstorm different ideas (likes and dislikes, how many of something, etc.).
- Hand out "Favorite Quarters" sheet (page 4), or use an overhead. Explain that there used to be only one type of quarter-the one with an eagle on it. Now, there will be new quarters for each state. Briefly explain the historical background of the 10 new quarters released to date (see "State Information Pages," 26-29). Ask if any students have seen or used these coins.
- Have students share different comments and opinions about the new quarters and their symbols. Have students share likes/dislikes about the quarters.
- Ask students to decide which quarters they like best, the eagle quarter or the new quarters.
- Have students who prefer the eagle quarter raise their hands, and count the number of votes from the class. Then have the students who prefer the new quarters to raise their hands, and count the number of votes from the class.
- Using the pre-made graph (x and y axis), demonstrate how to show the data in a graph, either pictorially or in a bar graph.

### Part 2: Student Activity

- Ask students to look at the "Favorite Quarters" sheet (page 4) and follow the instructions, circling their favorite quarter. (Unlike the class activity, the student can select any one of the 11 quarters). Collect the sheets, and as a class, tally the votes.
- Hand out the "Building a Graph" worksheet (page 5). Ask students to graph the results of the class votes.
- Students will be assessed based on their ability to complete the graph accurately and answer the two questions at the bottom of the worksheet.

### Enrichments/Extensions

- Students can create their own survey, having students or family members choose between two different quarters, collecting the data, and displaying it in graph form.
- Students can answer or create questions about the graph.
- Students can trace their favorite quarter onto a piece of paper and write a paragraph about why they like the design on the quarter the best.
- Students can create their own quarter designs; they can display their designs to the class and tell why they included what they did.

Assess the effectiveness of the lesson based on the students' ability to complete the graph accurately and answer the worksheet questions.

### Games

**Discipline**: Math

**Domain**: K.CC Counting and Cardinality

**Grade(s)**:
Grade K

**Cluster**: Compare numbers

**Standards**:

**K.CC.6.**Identify whether the number of objects in one group is greater than, less than, or equal to the number of objects in another group, eg, by using matching and counting strategies.**K.CC.7.**Compare two numbers between 1 and 10 presented as written numerals.

**Discipline**: Math

**Domain**: 2.OA Operations and Algebraic Thinking

**Grade(s)**:
Grade K

**Cluster**: Add and subtract within 20

**Standards**:

- 2.OA.2. Solve word problems that call for addition of three whole numbers whose sum is less than or equal to 20, eg, by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

**Discipline**: Math

**Domain**: K.CC Counting and Cardinality

**Grade(s)**:
Grade K

**Cluster**: Count to tell the number of objects

**Standards**:

**K.CC.4.**Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities; connect counting to cardinality.- When counting objects, say the number names in the standard order, pairing each object with one and only one number name and each number name with one and only one object.
- Understand that the last number name said tells the number of objects counted. The number of objects is the same regardless of their arrangement or the order in which they were counted.
- Understand that each successive number name refers to a quantity that is one larger.

**K.CC.5.**Count to answer "how many?" questions about as many as 20 things arranged in a line, a rectangular array, or a circle, or as many as 10 things in a scattered configuration; given a number from 1-20, count out that many objects.

**Discipline**: Mathematics

**Domain**: All Problem Solving

**Cluster**: Instructional programs from kindergarten through grade 12 should enable all students to

**Grade(s)**:
Grades K–12

**Standards**:

- Build new mathematical knowledge through problem solving
- Solve problems that arise in mathematics and in other contexts
- Apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies to solve problems
- Monitor and reflect on the process of mathematical problem solving

**Discipline**: Mathematics

**Domain**: K-2 Data Analysis and Probability

**Cluster**: Develop and evaluate inferences and predictions that are based on data.

**Grade(s)**:
Grades K–12

**Standards**:

In K through grade 2 all students should

- discuss events related to students' experiences as likely or unlikely.

**Discipline**: Mathematics

**Domain**: K-2 Data Analysis and Probability

**Cluster**: Formulate questions that can be addressed with data and collect, organize, and display relevant data to answer them.

**Grade(s)**:
Grades K–12

**Standards**:

In K through grade 2 all students should

- pose questions and gather data about themselves and their surroundings;
- sort and classify objects according to their attributes and organize data about the objects; and
- represent data using concrete objects, pictures, and graphs.

**Discipline**: Visual Arts and Music

**Domain**: K-4 Visual Arts

**Cluster**: Standard 6: Making connections between visual arts and other disciplines

**Grade(s)**:
Grades K–12

**Standards**:

- Students understand and use similarities and differences between characteristics of the visual arts and other arts disciplines
- Students identify connections between the visual arts and other disciplines in the curriculum

**Discipline**: Mathematics

**Domain**: 3-5 Data Analysis and Probability

**Cluster**: Develop and evaluate inferences and predictions that are based on data.

**Grade(s)**:
Grades K–12

**Standards**:

In grades 3–5 all students should

- propose and justify conclusions and predictions that are based on data and design studies to further investigate the conclusions or predictions.

**Discipline**: Social Studies

**Domain**: All Thematic Standards

**Cluster**: People, Places, and Environment

**Grade(s)**:
Grades K–12

**Standards**:

Teachers should:

- Enable learners to use, interpret, and distinguish various representations of Earth such as maps, globes, and photographs, and to use appropriate geographic tools
- Encourage learners to construct, use, and refine maps and mental maps, calculate distance, scale, area, and density, and organize information about people, places, regions, and environments in a spatial context
- Help learners to locate, distinguish, and describe the relationships among varying regional and global patterns of physical systems such as landforms, climate, and natural resources, and explain changes in the physical systems
- Guide learners in exploring characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth’s surface
- Have learners describe how people create places that reflect culture, human needs, current values and ideals, and government policies
- Provide opportunities for learners to examine, interpret, and analyze interactions of human beings and their physical environments, and to observe and analyze social and economic effects of environmental changes, both positive and negative
- Challenge learners to consider, compare, and evaluate existing uses of resources and land in communities, regions, countries, and the world
- Direct learners to explore ways in which Earth’s physical features have changed over time, and describe and assess ways historical events have influenced and been influenced by physical and human geographic features