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A Fish Story

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Summary

Students will closely examine and analyze an American tall tale. Students will learn the key features of a tall tale and will compose a tall tale of their own.

Coin Type(s)

  • Quarter

Coin Program(s)

  • 50 State Quarters

Objectives

  • Students will closely examine and analyze an American tall tale.
  • Students will learn the key features of a tall tale and will compose a tall tale of their own.

Major Subject Area Connections

  • Drama
  • Language Arts
  • Social Studies

Minor/supporting Subject Area Connections

  • Art

Grades

  • Fourth grade
  • Fifth grade
  • Sixth grade

Class Time

Sessions: Five
Session Length: 45-60 minutes
Total Length: 151-500 minutes

Groupings

  • Whole group
  • Small groups
  • Pairs

Background Knowledge

Students should have a basic knowledge of:

  • U.S. geography
  • The writing process
  • Fictional writing

Terms and Concepts

  • Quarter
  • Reverse (back)
  • Tall tale
  • Character
  • Setting
  • Hyperbole
  • Resolution

Materials

  • 1 overhead projector (optional)
  • “Minnesota Quarter Reverse” page
  • 1 class map of the United States
  • 1 copy of an age-appropriate text that tells the story of any tall tale (except for Paul Bunyan) such as:
    • American Tall Tales by Mary Pope Osborne
    • Cut from the Same Cloth: Women of Myth, Legend and Tall Tale by Robert D. SanSouci
    • Here Comes McBroom: Three More Tall Tales by Sid Fleischman
  • “Tall Tale Analysis” graphic organizer
  • Overhead markers
  • “Create a Tale” sheet
  • “Tall Tale Rubric”
  • Large sheets of white construction paper
  • 1 copy of an age-appropriate text that tells the story of Paul Bunyan and the creation of Minnesota’s 10,000 lakes, such as:
    • Paul Bunyan by Bill Balcziak
    • Paul Bunyan by Sandra Becker
    • Paul Bunyan by Esther Shephard
    • Paul Bunyan and his Blue Ox by Patricia A. Jensen
    • Story of Paul Bunyan by Barbara Emberley 

Preparations

  • Make copies of the following:
    • “Tall Tale Analysis” graphic organizer (1 per student).
    • “Create ATale” sheet (1 per student).
    • “Tall Tale Rubric” (1 per student).
  • Make an overhead transparency (or photocopy) of the following:
    • “Minnesota Quarter Reverse” page
    • “Tall Tale Analysis” graphic organizer
  • Locate an age-appropriate text that tells the story of Paul Bunyan and the creation of Minnesota’s 10,000 lakes (See examples under “Materials”).
  • Cut the construction paper into the shape of a large coin (2 coins per group). 

Worksheets and Files

Lesson plan, worksheet(s), and rubric (if any) at www.usmint.gov/kids/teachers/lessonPlans/pdf/325.pdf.

Session 1

  1. Ask the students if they’ve ever heard of a tall tale and, if so, what one might be. Accept all student responses. If necessary, explain that a tall tale is a story with exaggerated characteristics and accomplishments.
  2. Explain that tall tales are stories that were created as a form of entertainment long before television ever existed. Sometimes these stories changed over time as they were told from person to person, becoming more and more exaggerated. Usually the stories were told in a way that was easy for people to retell.
  3. Ask if the students can think of any tall tales that they may know. Students may remember the stories of Johnny Appleseed, or Pecos Bill.
  4. Introduce the selected text. As a group, preview the text and illustrations to generate observations about what might be occurring at different points in the text.
  5. Read the selected text to the class and attend to any unfamiliar vocabulary.
  6. Display an overhead transparency or photocopy of the “Tall Tale Analysis” graphic organizer and distribute a copy to each student. Explain the three sections and the appropriate thinking by reflecting on the story the students have just heard. Complete each section as a class.
    • Character: Explain that the characters in tall tales have features and traits that are extremely exaggerated. The feats that they perform are also greatly exaggerated. Characters in tall tales usually can be described as strong, courageous, honorable, etc. How would you describe the main character? What characteristics are most exaggerated about him or her?
    • Setting: What was the setting of this story? Would the story have made sense if this story took place in another location?
    • Hyperbole: Hyperbole is the exaggeration used in the tall tale in order to make the story impossible and humorous. What kind of exaggeration was used in this tall tale?
  7. Divide the students into pairs and distribute a copy of the graphic organizer to each pair. Direct the students to work together to complete this sheet.

Sessions 2 through 4

  1. As a class, revisit the “Tall Tale Analysis” chart from the previous session and discuss.
  2. Describe the 50 State Quarters® Program for background information, if necessary, using the example of your own state, if available. Then display the transparency or photocopy of the Minnesota quarter reverse. Locate Minnesota on a classroom map. Note its position in relation to your school’s location.
  3. With the students, examine the coin design. Have the students point out the elements of this design, including the outline of the state of Minnesota, the pine trees, the water, the bird (loon), and the individuals fishing, as well as the words “Land of 10,000 Lakes.”
  4. As a class, discuss what the students can infer about the state of Minnesota by looking at this coin. They should be able to note that the state has many lakes and that people there participate in outdoor activities, including fishing.
  5. Explain that, in groups of three, the students will write tall tales of their own. For each tall tale, they will need to develop a central character that is somehow responsible for creating Minnesota’s 10,000 lakes.
  6. Distribute a “Create a Tale” sheet to each student. As a class, review the assignment as described on this sheet.
  7. Distribute a “Tall Tale Rubric” to each student and review this rubric with the entire class.
  8. Allow enough time for the groups to draft, edit, and write their tall tales.
  9. Distribute two pieces of large white construction paper cut in the shape of a large coin to each group. Each group will use these coins to draw the hero of its tall tale. On the back of this coin, the students will write the questions from their “Create a Tale” sheets, including all the answers.
  10. Finally, each group will use the classroom resources to create costumes and props in order to make a dramatic presentation of its tall tale. The groups should practice their productions before presenting them to the class.

Session 5

  1. Direct the groups to take turns presenting their characters and then their tall tales to the class.
  2. Hang the students’ illustrations in the classroom so that students can see both sides.
  3. Introduce the selected text about Paul Bunyan. As a group, preview the text and illustrations to generate observations about what might be occurring at different points in the book.
  4. Read the selected text aloud. 

Differentiated Learning Options

Videotape the skits for students to use in completing the “Tall Tale Analysis” sheet. 

Enrichments/Extensions

  • Have students read additional examples of tall tales and direct them to analyze the features of the story using a new “Tall Tale Analysis” sheet.
  • Have students compare characters using a Venn diagram. 

Use the worksheets and class participation to assess whether the lesson objectives have been met.

There are no related resources for this lesson plan.

Discipline: Algebra (High School)
Domain: HSA-APR Arithmetic with Polynomials and Rational Expressions
Grade(s): Grades 9– 12
Cluster: Perform arithmetic operations on polynomials
Standards:

  • HSA-APR.1. Understand that polynomials form a system analogous to the integers, namely, they are closed under the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication; add, subtract, and multiply polynomials. 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.4 Language
Grade(s): Grades 9– 12
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.4.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Use relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) and relative adverbs (where, when, why).
    • Form and use the progressive (e.g., I was walking; I am walking; I will be walking) verb tenses.
    • Use modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, must) to convey various conditions.
    • Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag).
    • Form and use prepositional phrases.
    • Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.
    • Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to, too, two; there, their).
  • L.4.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Use correct capitalization.
    • Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a text.
    • Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence.
    • Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.5 Language
Grade(s): Grades 9– 12
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.5.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Explain the function of conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections in general and their function in particular sentences.
    • Form and use the perfect (e.g., I had walked; I have walked; I will have walked) verb tenses.
    • Use verb tense to convey various times, sequences, states, and conditions.
    • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense.
    • Use correlative conjunctions (e.g., either/or, neither/nor).
  • L.5.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Use punctuation to separate items in a series.
    • Use a comma to separate an introductory element from the rest of the sentence.
    • Use a comma to set off the words yes and no (e.g., Yes, thank you), to set off a tag question from the rest of the sentence (e.g., It’s true, isn’t it?), and to indicate direct address (e.g., Is that you, Steve?).
    • Use underlining, quotation marks, or italics to indicate titles of works.
    • Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.6 Language
Grade(s): Grades 9– 12
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.6.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Ensure that pronouns are in the proper case (subjective, objective, possessive).
    • Use intensive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves).
    • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person.
    • Recognize and correct vague pronouns (i.e., ones with unclear or ambiguous antecedents).
    • Recognize variations from standard English in their own and others' writing and speaking, and identify and use strategies to improve expression in conventional language.
  • L.6.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Use punctuation (commas, parentheses, dashes) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements.
    • Spell correctly.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.4 Writing
Grade(s): Grades 9– 12
Cluster: Text Types and Purposes
Standards:

  • W.4.1. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.
    • Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer’s purpose.
    • Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details.
    • Link opinion and reasons using words and phrases (e.g., for instance, in order to, in addition).
    • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.
  • W.4.2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
    • Introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and sections; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.
    • Link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (e.g., another, for example, also, because).
    • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
    • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.
  • W.4.3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
    • Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
    • Use dialogue and description to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations.
    • Use a variety of transitional words and phrases to manage the sequence of events.
    • Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely.
    • Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.4 Writing
Grade(s): Grades 9– 12
Cluster: Production and Distribution of Writing
Standards:

  • W.4.4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
  • W.4.5. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grade 4.)
  • W.4.6. With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of one page in a single sitting. 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.5 Writing
Grade(s): Grades 9– 12
Cluster: Production and Distribution of Writing
Standards:

  • W.5.4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3.)
  • W.5.5. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grade 5 here.)
  • W.5.6. With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of two pages in a single sitting.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.5 Writing
Grade(s): Grades 9– 12
Cluster: Text Types and Purposes
Standards:

  • W.5.1. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.
    • Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which ideas are logically grouped to support the writer’s purpose.
    • Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details.
    • Link opinion and reasons using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., consequently, specifically).
    • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.
  • W.5.2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
    • Introduce a topic clearly, provide a general observation and focus, and group related information logically; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.
    • Link ideas within and across categories of information using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., in contrast, especially).
    • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
    • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.
  • W.5.3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
    • Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
    • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, description, and pacing, to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations.
    • Use a variety of transitional words, phrases, and clauses to manage the sequence of events.
    • Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely.
    • Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.6 Writing
Grade(s): Grades 9– 12
Cluster: Production and Distribution of Writing
Standards:

  • W.6.4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
  • W.6.5. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 up to and including grade 6.)
  • W.6.6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of three pages in a single sitting.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.4 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grades 9– 12
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RL.4.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including those that allude to significant characters found in mythology (e.g., Herculean).
  • RL.4.5. Explain major differences between poems, drama, and prose, and refer to the structural elements of poems (e.g., verse, rhythm, meter) and drama (e.g., casts of characters, settings, descriptions, dialogue, stage directions) when writing or speaking about a text.
  • RL.4.6. Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are narrated, including the difference between first- and third-person narrations.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.4 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grades 9– 12
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RL.4.7. Make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or oral presentation of the text, identifying where each version reflects specific descriptions and directions in the text.
  • RL.4.8. not applicable to literature.
  • RL.4.9. Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and topics (e.g., opposition of good and evil) and patterns of events (e.g., the quest) in stories, myths, and traditional literature from different cultures.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.4 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grades 9– 12
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RL.4.1. Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
  • RL.4.2. Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text.
  • RL.4.3. Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.5 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grades 9– 12
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RL.5.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative language such as metaphors and similes.
  • RL.5.5. Explain how a series of chapters, scenes, or stanzas fits together to provide the overall structure of a particular story, drama, or poem.
  • RL.5.6. Describe how a narrator’s or speaker’s point of view influences how events are described.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.5 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grades 9– 12
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RL.5.7. Analyze how visual and multimedia elements contribute to the meaning, tone, or beauty of a text (e.g., graphic novel, multimedia presentation of fiction, folktale, myth, poem).
  • RL.5.8. not applicable to literature.
  • RL.5.9. Compare and contrast stories in the same genre (e.g., mysteries and adventure stories) on their approaches to similar themes and topics.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.5 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grades 9– 12
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RL.5.1. Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
  • RL.5.2. Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text.
  • RL.5.3. Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., how characters interact).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.6 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grades 9– 12
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RL.6.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone.
  • RL.6.5. Analyze how a particular sentence, chapter, scene, or stanza fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the theme, setting, or plot.
  • RL.6.6. Explain how an author develops the point of view of the narrator or speaker in a text.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.6 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grades 9– 12
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RL.6.7. Compare and contrast the experience of reading a story, drama, or poem to listening to or viewing an audio, video, or live version of the text, including contrasting what they “see” and “hear” when reading the text to what they perceive when they listen or watch.
  • RL.6.8. not applicable to literature.
  • RL.6.9. Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres (e.g., stories and poems; historical novels and fantasy stories) in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.6 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grades 9– 12
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RL.6.1. Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
  • RL.6.2. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.
  • RL.6.3. Describe how a particular story’s or drama’s plot unfolds in a series of episodes as well as how the characters respond or change as the plot moves toward a resolution.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Use of Spoken, Written, and Visual Language
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Applying Knowledge to Language
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions (e.g., spelling and punctuation), media techniques, figurative language, and genre to create, critique, and discuss print and nonprint texts.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Literature
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students read a wide range of literature from many periods in many genres to build an understanding of the many dimensions (e.g., philosophical, ethical, aesthetic) of human experience. 

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Time, Continuity, and Change
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • assist learners to understand that historical knowledge and the concept of time are socially influenced constructions that lead historians to be selective in the questions they seek to answer and the evidence they use
  • help learners apply key concepts such as time, chronology, causality, change, conflict, and complexity to explain, analyze, and show connections among patterns of historical change and continuity
  • enable learners to identify and describe significant historical periods and patterns of change within and across cultures, including but not limited to, the development of ancient cultures and civilizations, the emergence of religious belief systems, the rise of nation-states, and social, economic, and political revolutions
  • guide learners in using such processes of critical historical inquiry to reconstruct and interpret the past, such as using a variety of sources and checking their credibility, validating and weighing evidence for claims, searching for causality, and distinguishing between events and developments that are significant and those that are inconsequential
  • provide learners with opportunities to investigate, interpret, and analyze multiple historical and contemporary viewpoints within and across cultures related to important events, recurring dilemmas, and persistent issues, while employing empathy, skepticism, and critical judgment; and enable learners to apply ideas, theories, and modes of historical inquiry to analyze historical and contemporary developments, and to inform and evaluate actions concerning public policy issues.

Discipline: Visual Arts and Music
Domain: K-4 Visual Arts
Cluster: Standard 6: Making connections between visual arts and other disciplines
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students understand and use similarities and differences between characteristics of the visual arts and other arts disciplines
  • Students identify connections between the visual arts and other disciplines in the curriculum

Discipline: Visual Arts and Music
Domain: 5-8 Visual Arts
Cluster: Standard 6: Making connections between visual arts and other disciplines
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students compare multiple purposes for creating works of art
  • Students analyze contemporary and historic meanings in specific artworks through cultural and aesthetic inquiry
  • Students describe and compare a variety of individual responses to their own artworks and to artworks from various eras and cultures

Discipline: Visual Arts and Music
Domain: 5-8 Theater
Cluster: Standard 2: Acting by developing basic acting skills to portray characters who interact in improvised and scripted scenes
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students analyze descriptions, dialogue, and actions to discover, articulate, and justify character motivation and invent character behaviors based on the observation of interactions, ethical choices, and emotional responses of people
  • Students demonstrate acting skills (such as sensory recall, concentration, breath control, diction, body alignment, control of isolated body parts) to develop characterizations that suggest artistic choices
  • Students in an ensemble, interact as the invented characters

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Applying Strategies to Writing
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Effective Communication
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes.

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: People, Places, and Environment
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • Enable learners to use, interpret, and distinguish various representations of Earth such as maps, globes, and photographs, and to use appropriate geographic tools
  • Encourage learners to construct, use, and refine maps and mental maps, calculate distance, scale, area, and density, and organize information about people, places, regions, and environments in a spatial context
  • Help learners to locate, distinguish, and describe the relationships among varying regional and global patterns of physical systems such as landforms, climate, and natural resources, and explain changes in the physical systems
  • Guide learners in exploring characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth’s surface
  • Have learners describe how people create places that reflect culture, human needs, current values and ideals, and government policies
  • Provide opportunities for learners to examine, interpret, and analyze interactions of human beings and their physical environments, and to observe and analyze social and economic effects of environmental changes, both positive and negative
  • Challenge learners to consider, compare, and evaluate existing uses of resources and land in communities, regions, countries, and the world
  • Direct learners to explore ways in which Earth’s physical features have changed over time, and describe and assess ways historical events have influenced and been influenced by physical and human geographic features