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Slowly But Surely

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Summary

Students will explore and experiment with various sentence structures. Students will identify nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverbs and use these parts of speech in writing sentences. Students will use addition and multiplication to compute the “value” of each sentence.

Coin Type(s)

  • Quarter

Coin Program(s)

  • 50 State Quarters

Objectives

  • Students will explore and experiment with various sentence structures.
  • Students will identify nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverbs and use these parts of speech in writing sentences.
  • Students will use addition and multiplication to compute the “value” of each sentence.

Major Subject Area Connections

  • Language Arts
  • Math

Grades

  • Fourth grade
  • Fifth grade
  • Sixth grade

Class Time

Sessions: Three
Session Length: 45-60 minutes
Total Length: 121-150 minutes

Groupings

  • Whole group
  • Pairs
  • Individual work

Background Knowledge

Students should have a basic knowledge of nouns, verbs, and adjectives.

Terms and Concepts

  • Quarter
  • Reverse (back)

 

Materials

  • Warm Up! page
  • Verb List page
  • Challenge Yourself! page
  • Reproducible Coin Sheet, Obverse page from the Additional Resources section
  • Coin Codes page
  • Coin Codes Key page
  • Crack the Code! page
  • 1 overhead projector
  • Overhead markers
  • Chart paper/markers
  • 1 age-appropriate text relating to adverbs, such as:
    • Dearly, Nearly, Insincerely: What Is an Adverb? by Brian P. Cleary, Brian Gable
    • Up, Up and Away: A Book About Adverbs by Ruth Heller
    • Adverbs (Sentences) by Kelly Doudna
    • Adverbs (Magic of Language) by Ann Heinrichs
  • Chalkboard/chalk
  • Lined paper
  • Envelopes
  • Scissors

Preparations

  • Make copies of the following:
    • Warm Up! page (1 half page per student)
    • Verb List page (1 per group)
    • Challenge Yourself! page (1 half page per student)
    • Reproducible Coin Sheet, Obverse page from the Additional Resources section (1 per group)
    • Coin Codes page (1 per group)
    • Coin Codes Key page (1 copy)
    • Crack the Code! page (1 per group)
  • Make an overhead transparency of each of the following:
    • Warm Up page
    • Challenge Yourself! page
  • Locate an age-appropriate text relating to adverbs (see examples under "Materials").
  • Cut out the coins from the "Coin Cut Outs" page and separate them into the group envelopes.

 

Worksheets and Files

Lesson plan, worksheet(s), and rubric (if any) at www.usmint.gov/kids/teachers/lessonPlans/pdf/329.pdf.

Session 1

  1. Distribute one "Warm Up!" slip to each student and display the overhead transparency of the "Warm Up" page. Explain that the students will be reviewing what they know about nouns, adjectives, and verbs. Direct the students to complete the exercise individually.
  2. Allow an appropriate amount of time for the students to complete the activity.
  3. Review the "Warm Up!" page as a class. Record student responses on the overhead transparency.
  4. Have the students brainstorm what other parts of speech they know or have heard of. If necessary, introduce the idea that an adverb is a part of speech and explain that the students will be exploring adverbs in this lesson.
  5. Write the word "adverb" on a piece of chart paper. Have students discuss which other part of speech an adverb sounds like. The students should respond that the word "ad-verb" has the word "verb" in it.
  6. Have the students predict what an adverb might be and record responses on chart paper.
  7. Introduce the selected text.
  8. Read the text aloud to the group. During the reading, attend to any unfamiliar vocabulary.
  9. Have the students define "adverb." The students should respond that adverbs are words that tell more about verbs and describe how, when, or where something is done. Students should also recognize that many adverbs end in "ly."
  10. Write the word "run" on the board. Point out that the word "run" is a verb that shows action. Have the students brainstorm different ways to run (fast, quickly, slowly, straight, crooked, swiftly, excitedly, etc). List these words on the board. Circle the brainstormed words and explain to the students that these words are adverbs. Point out that many of these words end in "ly."
  11. Separate the class into groups of three and distribute one "Verb List" slip to each group.
  12. Direct the groups to brainstorm two to four adverbs for each of the verbs listed on the page. Explain that all of the adverbs on their group worksheet should be different.
  13. Allow an appropriate amount of time for the students to complete the activity.
  14. Collect the group worksheets. Ask for one group to come up to the front of the class.
  15. Read aloud the first verb from the list. Have the group act out this verb for the class. For example, if the verb is "run," students will run in place.
  16. Then, read aloud one of the adverbs that the groups brainstormed. Direct the students to act out the verb in the way the adverb indicates. For example, students may run "slowly" or "quickly" in place.
  17. Continue steps 16 and 17 with the other groups, using the remaining verbs and adverbs on the group worksheets.

Session 2

  1. Display the overhead transparency of the "Challenge Yourself" page and distribute a "Challenge Yourself" slip to each student.
  2. Direct the students to complete the activity according to the directions.
  3. Review the activity as a class. Record student responses on the overhead transparency. Answer student questions.
  4. Collect the "Challenge Yourself" slips from the students for assessment.
  5. Explain to the students that they will be using what they know about parts of speech to play a game with coins.
  6. Organize the students into pairs.
  7. Give each pair an envelope of coin cut outs or real coins, if available, and one of the "Coin Codes" worksheets.
  8. Explain that the students will be analyzing sentences for their parts of speech and assigning coin values to each word. Then, the students will calculate the value of each sentence.
  9. Allow an appropriate amount of time for the students to complete the "Coin Codes" worksheets.
  10. Review the activity as a class. Answer student questions.
  11. Explain that each pair will now be creating its own coin code. Have each pair assign a coin (penny, nickel, dime, quarter) to each part of speech (noun, verb, adjective, adverb).
  12. Distribute one "Crack the Code!" page to each pair. Then, direct each group to create a key for their system. Explain that this key should be kept secret from the other groups.
  13. Allow a few minutes for each pair to create its own coin code and key.
  14. Direct each group to write five sentences and analyze them using its key. Then, direct the students to calculate the value of each sentence.
  15. Explain that, in the next session, the students will be attempting to crack each others’ codes.

Session 3

  1. Direct the students to meet in their pairs from the previous session.
  2. Have each pair of students review its coin code and double-check the accuracy of the sentence coin values.
  3. Explain that the students will try to break each others’ coin codes in this session.
  4. Model the process of attempting to break a coin code. On the board, write the following sentence: "Mary walked quietly." Next to the sentence, write "40 cents" and indicate to the students that this is the sentence’s coin value.
  5. Allow a few minutes for the students to figure out which coin values have been assigned to the parts of speech.
  6. When most of the students feel they have cracked the code, write the following sentence on the board: "Billy creates beautiful drawings." Next to the sentence, write "21 cents" and indicate to students that this is the sentence’s coin value.
  7. Direct the students to check their coin codes to see if they work for this sentence.
  8. Have student volunteers share how they cracked this coin code. If necessary, reveal that your coin code assigned the following values to each part of speech: Noun: 5 cents, Adverb: 25 cents, Adjective: 1 cent, Verb: 10 cents.
  9. Explain to the students that this is how they will try to break the codes of the other groups.
  10. Direct each pair to copy the five sentences from their "Crack the Code" page onto a piece of paper. Have the students include the value of each sentence.
  11. Direct each pair to swap papers with another group. The groups will try to break each other’s codes and will write down the keys.
  12. Challenge the groups to continue swapping coin codes, breaking as many as possible.
  13. Keep a tally on the board of how many codes each group has broken. At the end of class, determine which pair broke the most codes and declare them the "Crack the Code" experts.

Differentiated Learning Options

Enrichments/Extensions

Revisit this game as students learn about the other parts of speech. Have the students use the "Crack the Code" page to write sentences about the 50 State Quarters® Program.

Use the worksheets and class participation to assess whether the students have met the lesson objectives.

There are no related resources for this lesson plan.

Discipline: Math
Domain: 4.MD Measurement and Data
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit
Standards:

  • 4.MD.1. Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including km, m, cm, kg, g, lb, oz, l, ml, hr, min and sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Record measurement equivalents in a two column table.
    • For example, know that 1ft is 12 times as long as 1in. Express the length of a 4ft snake as 48in. Generate a conversion table for feet and inches listing the number pairs (1, 12), (2, 24), (3, 36), ...
  • 4.MD.2. Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale.
  • 4.MD.3. Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real world and mathematical problems. For example, find the width of a rectangular room given the area of the flooring and the length, by viewing the area formula as a multiplication equation with an unknown factor. 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.6 Language
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.6.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Ensure that pronouns are in the proper case (subjective, objective, possessive).
    • Use intensive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves).
    • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person.
    • Recognize and correct vague pronouns (i.e., ones with unclear or ambiguous antecedents).
    • Recognize variations from standard English in their own and others' writing and speaking, and identify and use strategies to improve expression in conventional language.
  • L.6.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Use punctuation (commas, parentheses, dashes) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements.
    • Spell correctly.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.4 Language
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.4.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Use relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) and relative adverbs (where, when, why).
    • Form and use the progressive (e.g., I was walking; I am walking; I will be walking) verb tenses.
    • Use modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, must) to convey various conditions.
    • Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag).
    • Form and use prepositional phrases.
    • Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.
    • Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to, too, two; there, their).
  • L.4.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Use correct capitalization.
    • Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a text.
    • Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence.
    • Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.5 Language
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.5.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Explain the function of conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections in general and their function in particular sentences.
    • Form and use the perfect (e.g., I had walked; I have walked; I will have walked) verb tenses.
    • Use verb tense to convey various times, sequences, states, and conditions.
    • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense.
    • Use correlative conjunctions (e.g., either/or, neither/nor).
  • L.5.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Use punctuation to separate items in a series.
    • Use a comma to separate an introductory element from the rest of the sentence.
    • Use a comma to set off the words yes and no (e.g., Yes, thank you), to set off a tag question from the rest of the sentence (e.g., It’s true, isn’t it?), and to indicate direct address (e.g., Is that you, Steve?).
    • Use underlining, quotation marks, or italics to indicate titles of works.
    • Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.4 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RL.4.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including those that allude to significant characters found in mythology (e.g., Herculean).
  • RL.4.5. Explain major differences between poems, drama, and prose, and refer to the structural elements of poems (e.g., verse, rhythm, meter) and drama (e.g., casts of characters, settings, descriptions, dialogue, stage directions) when writing or speaking about a text.
  • RL.4.6. Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are narrated, including the difference between first- and third-person narrations.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.4 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RL.4.7. Make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or oral presentation of the text, identifying where each version reflects specific descriptions and directions in the text.
  • RL.4.8. not applicable to literature.
  • RL.4.9. Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and topics (e.g., opposition of good and evil) and patterns of events (e.g., the quest) in stories, myths, and traditional literature from different cultures.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.4 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RL.4.1. Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
  • RL.4.2. Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text.
  • RL.4.3. Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.5 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RL.5.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative language such as metaphors and similes.
  • RL.5.5. Explain how a series of chapters, scenes, or stanzas fits together to provide the overall structure of a particular story, drama, or poem.
  • RL.5.6. Describe how a narrator’s or speaker’s point of view influences how events are described.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.5 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RL.5.7. Analyze how visual and multimedia elements contribute to the meaning, tone, or beauty of a text (e.g., graphic novel, multimedia presentation of fiction, folktale, myth, poem).
  • RL.5.8. not applicable to literature.
  • RL.5.9. Compare and contrast stories in the same genre (e.g., mysteries and adventure stories) on their approaches to similar themes and topics.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.5 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RL.5.1. Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
  • RL.5.2. Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text.
  • RL.5.3. Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., how characters interact).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.6 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RL.6.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone.
  • RL.6.5. Analyze how a particular sentence, chapter, scene, or stanza fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the theme, setting, or plot.
  • RL.6.6. Explain how an author develops the point of view of the narrator or speaker in a text.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.6 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RL.6.7. Compare and contrast the experience of reading a story, drama, or poem to listening to or viewing an audio, video, or live version of the text, including contrasting what they “see” and “hear” when reading the text to what they perceive when they listen or watch.
  • RL.6.8. not applicable to literature.
  • RL.6.9. Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres (e.g., stories and poems; historical novels and fantasy stories) in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.6 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RL.6.1. Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
  • RL.6.2. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.
  • RL.6.3. Describe how a particular story’s or drama’s plot unfolds in a series of episodes as well as how the characters respond or change as the plot moves toward a resolution.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.4 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • SL.4.4. Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.
  • SL.4.5. Add audio recordings and visual displays to presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.
  • SL.4.6. Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion); use formal English when appropriate to task and situation. (See grade 4 Language standards 1 for specific expectations.)

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.5 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • SL.5.4. Report on a topic or text or present an opinion, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.
  • SL.5.5. Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, sound) and visual displays in presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.
  • SL.5.6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, using formal English when appropriate to task and situation. (See grade 5 Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.)

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.6 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • SL.6.4. Present claims and findings, sequencing ideas logically and using pertinent descriptions, facts, and details to accentuate main ideas or themes; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.
  • SL.6.5. Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, images, music, sound) and visual displays in presentations to clarify information.
  • SL.6.6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 6 Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.)

Discipline: Mathematics
Domain: All Problem Solving
Cluster: Instructional programs from kindergarten through grade 12 should enable all students to
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Build new mathematical knowledge through problem solving
  • Solve problems that arise in mathematics and in other contexts
  • Apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies to solve problems
  • Monitor and reflect on the process of mathematical problem solving

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Applying Knowledge to Language
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions (e.g., spelling and punctuation), media techniques, figurative language, and genre to create, critique, and discuss print and nonprint texts.

Discipline: Mathematics
Domain: 3-5 Number and Operations
Cluster: Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates.
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

In grades 3–5 all students should

  • develop fluency with basic number combinations for multiplication and division and use these combinations to mentally compute related problems, such as 30 × 50;
  • develop fluency in adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing whole numbers;
  • develop and use strategies to estimate the results of whole-number computations and to judge the reasonableness of such results;
  • develop and use strategies to estimate computations involving fractions and decimals in situations relevant to students' experience;
  • use visual models, benchmarks, and equivalent forms to add and subtract commonly used fractions and decimals; and
  • select appropriate methods and tools for computing with whole numbers from among mental computation, estimation, calculators, and paper and pencil according to the context and nature of the computation and use the selected method or tools.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Use of Spoken, Written, and Visual Language
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Applying Strategies to Writing
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Effective Communication
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes.

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