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Making Cents of Independence

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Summary

Students will identify the causes and major events of the Texan and American revolutions. Students will also compare and contrast the revolutions.

Coin Type(s)

  • Quarter

Coin Program(s)

  • 50 State Quarters

Objectives

  • Students will identify the causes and major events of the Texan and American revolutions.
  • Students will also compare and contrast the revolutions.

Major Subject Area Connections

  • Drama
  • Social Studies

Minor/supporting Subject Area Connections

  • Art
  • Language Arts

Grades

  • Fourth grade
  • Fifth grade
  • Sixth grade

Class Time

Sessions: Four
Session Length: 45-60 minutes
Total Length: 151-500 minutes

Groupings

  • Whole group
  • Pairs
  • Individual work

Background Knowledge

Students should have a basic knowledge of:

  • Symbols
  • Sequencing events

Terms and Concepts

  • Quarter
  • Shoulder Touch
  • Revolution
  • Reverse (back)
  • Annexation
  • Freeze Frame(s)
  • Obverse (front)
  • Independence
  • Chronology
  • Commemorative
  • Dictator
  • Rebellion
  • Parliament
  • Boycott
  • Militia
  • Congress
  • Patriot
  • Truce

Materials

  • 1 overhead transparency (or photocopy) of the Texas quarter reverse
  • 1 overhead projector (optional)
  • 1 class map of the United States
  • Chart paper or a chalkboard
  • Markers or chalk
  • 1 overhead transparency (or photocopy) of a quarter obverse
  • Copies of the “Journey to Statehood” page
  • Copies of the “Texan Revolution Timeline”
  • Copies of the “Path to Freedom” page
  • Copies of the “American Revolution Timeline”
  • Highlighters
  • Scissors
  • Student journals
  • Construction paper
  • Crayons, colored pencils, or markers
  • Copies of the “Rubric”

Preparations

  • Make an overhead transparency (or photocopy) of the Texas quarter reverse.
  • Make an overhead transparency (or photocopy) of a quarter obverse.
  • Make copies of:
    • The “Journey to Statehood” page (1/2 class set)
    • The “Texan Revolution Timeline” (1/2 class set)
    • The “Path to Freedom” page (1/2 class set)
    • The “American Revolution Timeline” (1/2 class set)
    • The “Rubric” (1 per student)
  • Write the vocabulary words (i.e. the bolded words from both readings) on chart paper or on the board.
  • Create a “Texan Revolution Timeline Key”
  • Create an “American Revolution Timeline Key”

Worksheets and Files

Lesson plan, worksheet(s), and rubric (if any) at www.usmint.gov/kids/teachers/lessonPlans/pdf/332.pdf.

Session 1

Note: Preview terms about Texas with your students, such as: The Lone Star State, republic.

  1. Describe the 50 State Quarters® Program for background information, if necessary, using the example of your own state, if available. Then display the transparency or photocopy of the Texas quarter reverse. Locate Texas on a classroom map. Note its position in relation to your school’s location.
  2. Using the overhead transparency (or photocopy) of the quarter and a United States map, explore students’ previous knowledge by asking them what makes Texas unique. Encourage students to brainstorm answers. If necessary, add that Texas was a republic before it became part of the Union.
  3. Create a T-chart (on chart paper or the board). The first column should be labeled “Obverse”.  The second column should be labeled “Reverse”.
  4. Review the terms “obverse” and “reverse” with your students, if necessary.
  5. Display an overhead transparency (or photocopy) of a quarter obverse, and instruct students to point out the national symbols they notice. Discuss with your students the meaning of these symbols. Record student responses in the “Obverse” column of the T-chart.
  6. Have students identify the state symbols on the reverse of the coin. Discuss the meaning of these symbols. Guide students to respond that these symbols represent state identity, history, culture, etc. Record student responses in the “Reverse” column of the T-chart.
  7. Review the “Lone Star State” motto with your students. Include in your review that the state motto comes from the Texas flag, which has just one large solitary star. The star symbolizes the time in Texas history before statehood when it was a republic, having gained independence from Mexico.
  8. Ask students to discuss the difference between the two sides of the coin. Direct responses to include that the obverse of the coin celebrates the national identity (how we are all similar). The reverse of the coin, however, celebrates how each state is different.
  9. Introduce the activity to students by informing them that today they will be exploring the relationship between a state and its country.
  10. As a class, review a vocabulary list (generated from the bolded words in both readings) written on the board.
  11. Divide the class in half. Distribute one “Journey to Statehood” page to each student in the first half of the class. Distribute one “Path to Freedom” page to each student in the second half of the class.
  12. Direct students to find a partner and distribute two highlighters to each pair. Direct students to read with their partners, highlighting key terms throughout their reading.
  13. Distribute one “Texan Revolution Timeline” to each student who read the “Journey to Statehood” page. Distribute one “American Revolution Timeline” to each student who read the “Path to Freedom” page. Instruct students to insert the date for each event (month, day, and year) according to information in the reading. Direct students to illustrate each squarewith a picture that symbolizes that event.
  14. When students have finished their illustrations, have them cut the squares out and arrange them in chronological order on their desks.
  15. To check student comprehension, review the order of the events with the class. Have students justify their answers by using the reading as evidence.
  16. Have students write in their journals, responding to the following prompt: Look at the major events that caused the Revolution in your reading. Select one of these events that would be most worthy of being on a commemorative coin.

Session 2

  1. Create another T-chart on a piece of chart paper or the board. The first column should be labeled “Texas Annexation”. The second column should be labeled “U.S. Independence”.
  2. Ask your students why it was beneficial for Texas to join the United States. Record student responses in the “Texas Annexation” column. Ask students to generate reasons why Americans wanted independence from Britain. List student responses in the “U.S. Independence” column of the T-chart.
  3. Challenge students to find any similarities between the reasons for the Texas Annexation and the reasons for American Independence. Discuss why these similarities might be significant.
  4. Introduce the next activity by explaining that each student will meet in groups; those who read about the Texan Revolution will meet in one group and those who read about the American Revolution will meet in the other. Explain to the groups that they will be responsible for creating a timeline of important events.
  5. Direct each student in the group to choose 5 of the most important events (from the squares in their related “Timeline” sequence) and create a timeline on white construction paper. Distribute one piece of white construction paper to each student.
  6. Explain to students that after they place the events and illustrations on their timeline in chronological order, they will also need to explain why each event is important. They can do this in complete sentences below the illustrations on the timeline.
  7. Once students have finished, direct the groups to meet and discuss their timelines. Students may have selected different events to include in the timeline. Have disagreeing students defend their positions.
  8. Challenge both groups to reach a consensus about the five most important events and list them in chronological order.

Session 3

  1. In their groups from the previous session, introduce the class activity, Freeze Frames. Take a few moments to explain the following definitions.
    • Freeze Frames: a series of human snapshots in which students silently depict a series of events.
    • Freeze Frame: a snapshot of one particular scene. All characters in the scene are “frozen.” They do not move or speak unless told to do so by the teacher.
    • Shoulder Touch: While students are in a freeze frame position, the teacher may tap any character in the frame on the shoulder. When tapped on the shoulder, the student should say something that the character could or would have said in that scene. (To challenge students: require them to use a vocabulary word in their shoulder touches.
  2. Explain to students that each of the 5 events they chose in their group consensus will become one freeze frame.
  3. Direct each group to brainstorm what their group’s freeze frames should look like and write them out.
  4. Distribute one “Rubric” to each student and review it as a class.
  5. Each group will create 5 freeze frames (based on their group’s consensus) and practice performing them. Remind students to incorporate shoulder touch ideas for each individual in each freeze frame.
  6. Allow students to use the rest of class time to prepare.

Session 4

  1. Before the students perform, practice audience behavior as a whole class. Follow the following guidelines (you may want to read this aloud to the class). While one group is preparing to perform, the audience puts their heads down on their desks. When the first freeze frame is ready, the teacher says, “Lights Up!” and the audience members may raise their heads (practice this several times). After the teacher has solicited shoulder taps and/or the audience has had plenty of time to examine the entire freeze frame, the teacher says, “Lights Down!” and the audience puts their heads down on their desks again (practice this several times). This process is repeated until the group reaches the last of its freeze frames.
  2. Allow each group to perform for the rest of the class as you grade them according to the “Rubric.”
  3. Lead a class discussion about the similarities and differences between the Texan and American Revolutions, as seen in the freeze frames presentations.
  4. Have each student partner with a member from the other Freeze Frames group to complete a Venn Diagram in their notes, comparing and contrasting the two Revolutions.
  5. Encourage students to share their diagrams with the class. Students can add new ideas or responses to their diagrams.

Differentiated Learning Options

  • Encourage struggling readers to follow along as their partner reads aloud the “Journey to Statehood” or “Path to Freedom” selections. Be sure that struggling readers have their own copies and do not have to share.
  • Supply students with a list of definitions for each of the bolded vocabulary words in their reading.
  • Create a tape recording of the “Journey to Statehood” and “Path to Freedom” reading selections. Allow struggling students to listen to the tape as they follow along with the reading.

Enrichments/Extensions

  • Have students research their own state history and create a timeline of their state’s journey to become part of the Union. If the pre-statehood history were to be the focus of the quarter, what would the design look like?
  • Design a quarter reverse and accompany it with an explanation of your design in relation to your state’s history.

Use the worksheets and class participation to assess whether the students have met the lesson objectives.

There are no related resources for this lesson plan.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.4 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Text Types and Purposes
Standards:

  • W.4.1. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.
    • Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer’s purpose.
    • Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details.
    • Link opinion and reasons using words and phrases (e.g., for instance, in order to, in addition).
    • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.
  • W.4.2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
    • Introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and sections; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.
    • Link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (e.g., another, for example, also, because).
    • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
    • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.
  • W.4.3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
    • Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
    • Use dialogue and description to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations.
    • Use a variety of transitional words and phrases to manage the sequence of events.
    • Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely.
    • Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.4 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Production and Distribution of Writing
Standards:

  • W.4.4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
  • W.4.5. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grade 4.)
  • W.4.6. With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of one page in a single sitting. 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.5 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Production and Distribution of Writing
Standards:

  • W.5.4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3.)
  • W.5.5. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grade 5 here.)
  • W.5.6. With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of two pages in a single sitting.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.6 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Production and Distribution of Writing
Standards:

  • W.6.4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
  • W.6.5. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 up to and including grade 6.)
  • W.6.6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of three pages in a single sitting.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.4 Language
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.4.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Use relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) and relative adverbs (where, when, why).
    • Form and use the progressive (e.g., I was walking; I am walking; I will be walking) verb tenses.
    • Use modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, must) to convey various conditions.
    • Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag).
    • Form and use prepositional phrases.
    • Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.
    • Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to, too, two; there, their).
  • L.4.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Use correct capitalization.
    • Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a text.
    • Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence.
    • Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.5 Language
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.5.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Explain the function of conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections in general and their function in particular sentences.
    • Form and use the perfect (e.g., I had walked; I have walked; I will have walked) verb tenses.
    • Use verb tense to convey various times, sequences, states, and conditions.
    • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense.
    • Use correlative conjunctions (e.g., either/or, neither/nor).
  • L.5.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Use punctuation to separate items in a series.
    • Use a comma to separate an introductory element from the rest of the sentence.
    • Use a comma to set off the words yes and no (e.g., Yes, thank you), to set off a tag question from the rest of the sentence (e.g., It’s true, isn’t it?), and to indicate direct address (e.g., Is that you, Steve?).
    • Use underlining, quotation marks, or italics to indicate titles of works.
    • Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.4 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.4.7. Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.
  • W.4.8. Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources.
  • W.4.9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    • Apply grade 4 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions].”).
    • Apply grade 4 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., “Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text”).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.5 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.5.7. Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.
  • W.5.8. Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of sources.
  • W.5.9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    • Apply grade 5 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or a drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., how characters interact]”).
    • Apply grade 5 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., “Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point[s]”).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.6 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.6.7. Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and refocusing the inquiry when appropriate.
  • W.6.8. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; assess the credibility of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources.
  • W.6.9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    • Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres [e.g., stories and poems; historical novels and fantasy stories] in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics”).
    • Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not”).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.4 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
Standards:

  • SL.4.1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    • Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
    • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
    • Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of others.
    • Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.
  • SL.4.2. Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
  • SL.4.3. Identify the reasons and evidence a speaker provides to support particular points. 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.4 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • SL.4.4. Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.
  • SL.4.5. Add audio recordings and visual displays to presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.
  • SL.4.6. Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion); use formal English when appropriate to task and situation. (See grade 4 Language standards 1 for specific expectations.)

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.5 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
Standards:

  • SL.5.1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 5 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    • Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
    • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
    • Pose and respond to specific questions by making comments that contribute to the discussion and elaborate on the remarks of others.
    • Review the key ideas expressed and draw conclusions in light of information and knowledge gained from the discussions.
  • SL.5.2. Summarize a written text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
  • SL.5.3. Summarize the points a speaker makes and explain how each claim is supported by reasons and evidence.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.6 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
Standards:

  • SL.6.1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 6 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    • Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
    • Follow rules for collegial discussions, set specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
    • Pose and respond to specific questions with elaboration and detail by making comments that contribute to the topic, text, or issue under discussion.
    • Review the key ideas expressed and demonstrate understanding of multiple perspectives through reflection and paraphrasing.
  • SL.6.2. Interpret information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and explain how it contributes to a topic, text, or issue under study.
  • SL.6.3. Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.6 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • SL.6.4. Present claims and findings, sequencing ideas logically and using pertinent descriptions, facts, and details to accentuate main ideas or themes; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.
  • SL.6.5. Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, images, music, sound) and visual displays in presentations to clarify information.
  • SL.6.6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 6 Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.)

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Time, Continuity, and Change
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • assist learners to understand that historical knowledge and the concept of time are socially influenced constructions that lead historians to be selective in the questions they seek to answer and the evidence they use
  • help learners apply key concepts such as time, chronology, causality, change, conflict, and complexity to explain, analyze, and show connections among patterns of historical change and continuity
  • enable learners to identify and describe significant historical periods and patterns of change within and across cultures, including but not limited to, the development of ancient cultures and civilizations, the emergence of religious belief systems, the rise of nation-states, and social, economic, and political revolutions
  • guide learners in using such processes of critical historical inquiry to reconstruct and interpret the past, such as using a variety of sources and checking their credibility, validating and weighing evidence for claims, searching for causality, and distinguishing between events and developments that are significant and those that are inconsequential
  • provide learners with opportunities to investigate, interpret, and analyze multiple historical and contemporary viewpoints within and across cultures related to important events, recurring dilemmas, and persistent issues, while employing empathy, skepticism, and critical judgment; and enable learners to apply ideas, theories, and modes of historical inquiry to analyze historical and contemporary developments, and to inform and evaluate actions concerning public policy issues.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Use of Spoken, Written, and Visual Language
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Research
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideas and questions, and by posing problems. They gather, evaluate, and synthesize data from a variety of sources (e.g., print and nonprint texts, artifacts, people) to communicate their discoveries in ways that suit their purpose and audience. 

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Power, Authority, and Governance
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • enable learners to examine the rights and responsibilities of the individual in relation to their families, their social groups, their community, and their nation; help students to understand the purpose of government and how its powers are acquired, used, and justified
  • provide opportunities for learners to examine issues involving the rights, roles, and status of individuals in relation to the general welfare
  • enable learners to describe the ways nations and organizations respond to forces of unity and diversity affecting order and security
  • have learners explain conditions, actions, and motivations that contribute to conflict and cooperation within and among nations
  • help learners to analyze and explain governmental mechanisms to meet the needs and wants of citizens, regulate territory, manage conflict, and establish order and security
  • have learners identify and describe the basic features of the American political system, and identify representative leaders from various levels and branches of government
  • challenge learners to apply concepts such as power, role, status, justice, democratic values, and influence to the examination of persistent issues and social problems guide learners to explain and evaluate how governments attempt to achieve their stated ideals at home and abroad

Discipline: Visual Arts and Music
Domain: 5-8 Theater
Cluster: Standard 2: Acting by developing basic acting skills to portray characters who interact in improvised and scripted scenes
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students analyze descriptions, dialogue, and actions to discover, articulate, and justify character motivation and invent character behaviors based on the observation of interactions, ethical choices, and emotional responses of people
  • Students demonstrate acting skills (such as sensory recall, concentration, breath control, diction, body alignment, control of isolated body parts) to develop characterizations that suggest artistic choices
  • Students in an ensemble, interact as the invented characters

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Effective Communication
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes.

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Individuals, Groups, and Institutions
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • help learners understand the concepts of role, status, and social class and use them in describing the connections and interactions of individuals, groups, and institutions in society
  • help learners analyze groups and evaluate the influences of institutions, people, events, and cultures in both historical and contemporary settings
  • help learners to understand the various forms institutions take, their functions, their relationships to one another and how they develop and change over time
  • assist learners in identifying and analyzing examples of tensions between expressions of individuality and efforts of groups and institutions to promote social conformity
  • help learners to describe and examine belief systems basic to specific traditions and laws in contemporary and historical societies
  • challenge learners to evaluate the role of institutions in furthering both continuity and change
  • guide learner analysis of the extent to which groups and institutions meet individual needs and promote the common good in contemporary and historical settings
  • assist learners as they explain and apply ideas and modes of inquiry drawn from the behavioral sciences in the examination of persistent social issues and problems

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: People, Places, and Environment
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • Enable learners to use, interpret, and distinguish various representations of Earth such as maps, globes, and photographs, and to use appropriate geographic tools
  • Encourage learners to construct, use, and refine maps and mental maps, calculate distance, scale, area, and density, and organize information about people, places, regions, and environments in a spatial context
  • Help learners to locate, distinguish, and describe the relationships among varying regional and global patterns of physical systems such as landforms, climate, and natural resources, and explain changes in the physical systems
  • Guide learners in exploring characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth’s surface
  • Have learners describe how people create places that reflect culture, human needs, current values and ideals, and government policies
  • Provide opportunities for learners to examine, interpret, and analyze interactions of human beings and their physical environments, and to observe and analyze social and economic effects of environmental changes, both positive and negative
  • Challenge learners to consider, compare, and evaluate existing uses of resources and land in communities, regions, countries, and the world
  • Direct learners to explore ways in which Earth’s physical features have changed over time, and describe and assess ways historical events have influenced and been influenced by physical and human geographic features