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Why? Because and Effect

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Summary

Starting with the Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine quarter, students will evaluate the causes and effects of the Battle of Baltimore and the War of 1812.

Coin Type(s)

  • Quarter

Coin Program(s)

  • America The Beautiful Quarters

Objectives

Students will evaluate the causes and effects of the Battle of Baltimore and the War of 1812.

Major Subject Area Connections

  • Language Arts
  • Social Studies

Grades

  • Seventh grade
  • Eighth grade

Class Time

Sessions: Three
Session Length: 45-60 minutes
Total Length: 151-500 minutes

Groupings

  • Whole group
  • Small groups
  • Individual work

Background Knowledge

Students should have a basic knowledge of:

  • The writing process
  • Cause and effect
  • War of 1812

Terms and Concepts

  • Quarter
  • Obverse (front)
  • Reverse (back)

Materials

  • 1 overhead projector (optional)

  • 1 overhead transparency (or photocopy) of the following:

    • "Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine Quarter" page

    • "Causes and Effects Samples"

    • Copies of the following: "Fort McHenry Effects" worksheet

    • "Causes and Effects Diagram"

    • "Cause-and-Effect Essay Rubric"

  • 1 class map of the United States
  • 1 class map or transparency of Baltimore Harbor with Fort McHenry indicated
  • An age-appropriate text that gives information on the War of 1812 and the Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine, such as:
    • Fort McHenry by Michael Burgan
    • Fort McHenry (Famous Forts Throughout American History) by Charles W. Maynard
    • The War of 1812 by Jill Mulhall
    • Our National Anthem by Norman Pearl
    • Fort McHenry by Scott Sheads
  • Internet sites that contain information about Fort McHenry, the Star Spangled Banner and the War of 1812, such as:
  • Chart paper
  • Computers with Internet access

Preparations

  • Make an overhead transparency (or photocopy) of each of the following:
    • "Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine Quarter" page
    • "Causes and Effects Samples"
  • Make copies of each of the following:
    • "Fort McHenry Effects" worksheet (1 per student)
    • "Causes and Effects Diagram" (1 per student)
    • "Cause-and-Effect Essay Rubric" (1 per student)
  • Locate texts that contain information on Fort McHenry and the War of 1812 (see examples under "Materials").
  • Locate a portion of text from one of the selected texts or Web pages that gives reasons for building Fort McHenry at its location on a peninsula in Baltimore Harbor.
  • Arrange to use the school computer lab for one or two sessions.
  • Bookmark Internet sites that contain information about Fort McHenry, the Star Spangled Banner and the War of 1812 (see examples under "Materials").

Worksheets and Files

Lesson plan, worksheet(s), and rubric (if any) at www.usmint.gov/kids/teachers/lessonPlans/pdf/390.pdf.

Session 1

  1. Describe the America the Beautiful Quarters® Program for background information. Tell the students that the front of a coin is called the "obverse" and the back is called the "reverse." Explain to the students that the United States Mint began to issue the quarters in the Program in 2010. By the time the program ends in 2021, there will be a total of 56 designs. Each design will focus on a different national site—one from each state, territory and the District of Columbia.
  2. Display the "Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine Quarter" page. Examine the design with the students. Have the students identify the images and the writing included in this design. Ask the students what they know about Fort McHenry and what happened there. Record student responses on chart paper.
  3. Locate Baltimore and Fort McHenry on a classroom map or transparency. Note its position in relation to your school’s location. Lead a class discussion on Fort McHenry’s strategic location and why it might have been built in that location. Record student responses on chart paper or the board.
  4. Review the concept of cause and effect with the students. Explain to the students that the effect is what happens and the cause is why it happens.
  5. Display the "Causes and Effects Samples" transparency. Review the example at the top. Review the second and third examples with the students and write the correct phrases in the boxes. In the last row Effects box, write "Fort McHenry was built in 1799 on a peninsula in the Baltimore Harbor." Refer the students back to the chart paper. Read the selected text and discuss the causes with the students. Add causes from the text to the chart paper. Write one of the causes in the Causes box on the transparency. Discuss the relationship between the cause and the effect.
  6. Explain to the students that they will be researching the cause of several events (effects) related to the War of 1812 and the Battle of Fort McHenry and writing an essay based on their research. If there’s time in this session, lead a class disussion on the different types of writing and the writing process.

Sessions 2 and 3

  1. Review the charts from the previous session.
  2. Distribute the "Fort McHenry Effects" sheet and the "Causes and Effects Diagram" to the students. Review the directions with the students. If they have enough information to fill in the causes on the "Causes and Effects Diagram," have them complete the worksheet. If not, have them only select the three effects for now.
  3. Have the students use the printed texts or take the students to the computer lab to search preselected Web sites. Explain to the students that they will be writing a cause-and-effect essay using one of the events they chose for the "Causes and Effects Diagram." Review the different types of writing and the writing process. Review the relationship between a cause and an effect. Review the importance of connecting the cause with the effect.
  4. Distribute the "Cause-and-Effect Essay Rubric." Review the rubric with the students. Allow the students time to research.
  5. In the classroom, allow students time to work on the "Causes and Effects Diagram" if not done and on their essays.
  6. Have the students evaluate their own essays using the rubric. Collect student essays, worksheets and rubrics.

 

Differentiated Learning Options

  • Allow students to research in pairs or small groups.
  • Have the causes listed and have students match the causes with the effects.
  • Create a template for the cause-and-effect essay.

Enrichments/Extensions

  • Have the students create a multimedia presentation with images to show the cause and effect relationships they researched.
  • Have the students research the different groups that helped to reinforce Baltimore before the battle in 1814. Have the students focus on the reasons why (causes) the different groups were willing to help (effects).

Use the essay, "Cause and Effect Essay Rubric" and "Causes and Effects Diagram" to evaluate whether the students have met the lesson objective.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.7 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Text Types and Purposes
Standards:

  • W.7.1. Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
    • Introduce claim(s), acknowledge alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
    • Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
    • Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), reasons, and evidence.
    • Establish and maintain a formal style.
    • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
  • W.7.2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.
    • Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
    • Use appropriate transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
    • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
    • Establish and maintain a formal style.
    • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.
  • W.7.3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.
    • Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
    • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
    • Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another.
    • Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events.
    • Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.7 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • SL.7.4. Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with pertinent descriptions, facts, details, and examples; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.
  • SL.7.5. Include multimedia components and visual displays in presentations to clarify claims and findings and emphasize salient points.
  • SL.7.6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 7 Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.)

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.8 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • SL.8.4. Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.
  • SL.8.5. Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest.
  • SL.8.6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 8 Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.)

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.7 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Production and Distribution of Writing
Standards:

  • W.7.4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
  • W.7.5. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 up to and including grade 7.)
  • W.7.6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and link to and cite sources as well as to interact and collaborate with others, including linking to and citing sources.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.7 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RL.7.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of rhymes and other repetitions of sounds (e.g., alliteration) on a specific verse or stanza of a poem or section of a story or drama.
  • RL.7.5. Analyze how a drama’s or poem’s form or structure (e.g., soliloquy, sonnet) contributes to its meaning.
  • RL.7.6. Analyze how an author develops and contrasts the points of view of different characters or narrators in a text.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.7 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RL.7.7. Compare and contrast a written story, drama, or poem to its audio, filmed, staged, or multimedia version, analyzing the effects of techniques unique to each medium (e.g., lighting, sound, color, or camera focus and angles in a film).
  • RL.7.8. not applicable to literature.
  • RL.7.9. Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal of a time, place, or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.7 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RL.7.1. Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
  • RL.7.2. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text.
  • RL.7.3. Analyze how particular elements of a story or drama interact (e.g., how setting shapes the characters or plot).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.8 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RL.8.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts.
  • RL.8.5. Compare and contrast the structure of two or more texts and analyze how the differing structure of each text contributes to its meaning and style.
  • RL.8.6. Analyze how differences in the points of view of the characters and the audience or reader (e.g., created through the use of dramatic irony) create such effects as suspense or humor.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.8 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RL.8.7. Analyze the extent to which a filmed or live production of a story or drama stays faithful to or departs from the text or script, evaluating the choices made by the director or actors. 
  • RL.8.8. not applicable to literature.
  • RL.8.9. Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character types from myths, traditional stories, or religious works such as the Bible, including describing how the material is rendered new.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.8 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RL.8.1. Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. 
  • RL.8.2. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to the characters, setting, and plot; provide an objective summary of the text.
  • RL.8.3. Analyze how particular lines of dialogue or incidents in a story or drama propel the action, reveal aspects of a character, or provoke a decision.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.8 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Production and Distribution of Writing
Standards:

  • W.8.4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
  • W.8.5. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 up to and including grade 8.)
  • W.8.6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and present the relationships between information and ideas efficiently as well as to interact and collaborate with others.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.8 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Text Types and Purposes
Standards:

  • W.8.1. Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
    • Introduce claim(s), acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
    • Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
    • Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
    • Establish and maintain a formal style.
    • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
  • W.8.2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.
    • Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
    • Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
    • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
    • Establish and maintain a formal style.
    • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.
  • W.8.3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.
    • Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
    • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, and reflection, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
    • Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence, signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another, and show the relationships among experiences and events.
    • Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events.
    • Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.7 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.7.7. Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions for further research and investigation.
  • W.7.8. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
  • W.7.9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    • Apply grade 7 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal of a time, place, or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history”).
    • Apply grade 7 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g. “Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims”).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.8 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.8.7. Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.
  • W.8.8. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
  • W.8.9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    • Apply grade 8 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character types from myths, traditional stories, or religious works such as the Bible, including describing how the material is rendered new”).
    • Apply grade 8 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced”).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.7 Language
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.7.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Explain the function of phrases and clauses in general and their function in specific sentences.
    • Choose among simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences to signal differing relationships among ideas.
    • Place phrases and clauses within a sentence, recognizing and correcting misplaced and dangling modifiers.
  • L.7.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Use a comma to separate coordinate adjectives (e.g., It was a fascinating, enjoyable movie but not He wore an old[,] green shirt).
    • Spell correctly.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.8 Language
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.8.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Explain the function of verbals (gerunds, participles, infinitives) in general and their function in particular sentences.
    • Form and use verbs in the active and passive voice.
    • Form and use verbs in the indicative, imperative, interrogative, conditional, and subjunctive mood.
    • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood.
  • L.8.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Use punctuation (comma, ellipsis, dash) to indicate a pause or break.
    • Use an ellipsis to indicate an omission.
    • Spell correctly.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Using Technological Information
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students use a variety of technological and information resources (e.g., libraries, databases, computer networks, video) to gather and synthesize information and to create and communicate knowledge.

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Time, Continuity, and Change
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • assist learners to understand that historical knowledge and the concept of time are socially influenced constructions that lead historians to be selective in the questions they seek to answer and the evidence they use
  • help learners apply key concepts such as time, chronology, causality, change, conflict, and complexity to explain, analyze, and show connections among patterns of historical change and continuity
  • enable learners to identify and describe significant historical periods and patterns of change within and across cultures, including but not limited to, the development of ancient cultures and civilizations, the emergence of religious belief systems, the rise of nation-states, and social, economic, and political revolutions
  • guide learners in using such processes of critical historical inquiry to reconstruct and interpret the past, such as using a variety of sources and checking their credibility, validating and weighing evidence for claims, searching for causality, and distinguishing between events and developments that are significant and those that are inconsequential
  • provide learners with opportunities to investigate, interpret, and analyze multiple historical and contemporary viewpoints within and across cultures related to important events, recurring dilemmas, and persistent issues, while employing empathy, skepticism, and critical judgment; and enable learners to apply ideas, theories, and modes of historical inquiry to analyze historical and contemporary developments, and to inform and evaluate actions concerning public policy issues.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Use of Spoken, Written, and Visual Language
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Applying Strategies to Writing
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Effective Communication
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes.

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