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Lincoln al Fresco

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Summary

Students will learn about and identify the significance of the symbols on the back of the 2010 Lincoln cent.

Coin Type(s)

  • Cent

Coin Program(s)

  • Lincoln Bicentennial Cents

Objectives

Students will learn about and identify the significance of the symbols on the back of the 2010 Lincoln cent.

Major Subject Area Connections

  • Art
  • Language Arts
  • Social Studies

Grades

  • Second grade
  • Third grade

Class Time

Sessions: Three
Session Length: 30-45 minutes
Total Length: 121-150 minutes

Groupings

  • Whole group
  • Pairs

Background Knowledge

Students should have a basic knowledge of:

  • Symbolism
  • United States History
  • Presidents

Terms and Concepts

  • Penny or one-cent coin
  • Fresco
  • Obverse (front)
  • Reverse (back)

Materials

  • 1 overhead projector (optional)
  • 1 overhead transparency (or photocopy) of the following:
    • "Lincoln Cent Images" page
    • "Lincoln Fresco" worksheet
    • "Lincoln Facts" worksheet
  • Copies of the following:
    • "Lincoln Cent Images" page
    • "Lincoln Fresco" worksheet
    • "Lincoln Facts" worksheet
  • 1 copy of an age-appropriate text that gives information about Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War, such as:
    • A Three-Minute Speech: Lincoln’s Remarks at Gettysburg by Jennifer Arm-strong
    • Don’t Know Much About Abraham Lincoln by Kenneth C. Davis
    • Abe Lincoln Remembers by Ann Turner
  • Copies of age-appropriate texts that give information and examples of frescoes
  • Plaster of Paris
  • Small aluminum pans or other flat containers to create molds for plaster, or foam core board
  • Paints (water colors, tempera, or poster)
  • Paint brushes

Preparations

  • Make an overhead transparency (or photocopy) of each of the following:
    • "Lincoln Cent Images" page
    • "Lincoln Fresco" worksheet
    • "Lincoln Facts" worksheet
  • Make copies of each of the following:
    • "Lincoln Cent Images" page
    • "Lincoln Fresco" worksheet
    • "Lincoln Facts" worksheet
  • Locate a text that gives information about Abraham Lincoln (see examples under "Materials").
  • Schedule computer lab time for research.
  • Prep the classroom work spaces for painting (Session 2).

Worksheets and Files

Lesson plan, worksheet(s), and rubric (if any) at www.usmint.gov/kids/teachers/lessonPlans/pdf/398.pdf.

Session 1

  1. Display the “Lincoln Cent Images” overhead transparency or photocopy, mentioning that an image must be special to be on a coin. Tell the student that the man on the front of our pennies today is Abraham Lincoln, our 16th president. During the more than 100 years that the Lincoln design has appeared on the obverse (front), several different designs have been used on the reverse (back): first a wheat design, then the Lincoln Memorial; four designs were used in 2009; the Union shield design first appeared in 2010.
  2. Distribute one “Lincoln Facts” worksheet to each student. Divide the class into pairs and explain that the pairs will be researching some facts about Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War. Explain that the students will listen to a selected text about Lincoln as a class and take notes. The student pairs will then complete the worksheets using what they have learned from the text.
  3. Introduce the students to the selected text on Abraham Lincoln. Preview the text and illustrations and allow students to generate observations about Abraham Lincoln.
  4. Read the text. During the reading, attend to any unfamiliar vocabulary.At the end of the reading, direct the students to complete the worksheet.
  5. Have the student pairs create the statement at the bottom of the worksheet together.

Session 2

  1. Distribute one "Project Facts and Research" worksheet to each student. Divide the class into pairs or small groups and explain that the groups will be researching the challenges of Lincoln’s presidency in the years leading up to and through the Civil War. Have the groups refer to the class summary from the previous session and then generate their own summary as a group regarding the challenges Lincoln faced during his presidency.
  2. Review the worksheets from the previous session and answer any questions.
  3. Introduce the students to the research process and the difference between valid and questionable sources online. Explain the categories of web sites (.gov, government; .mil, military; .com, commercial; .org, organization; .edu, higher education; .net, Internet service provider). Review the proper way to cite Internet sources and to incorporate information into their work without plagiarizing or violating intellectual property laws.
  4. Have the students write their names on the worksheets. Collect the worksheets for use in the next sessions.

Sessions 3 and 4

  1. Provide students access to the computer lab.
  2. Redistribute the "Project Facts and Research" worksheets and allow time to complete the worksheet.
  3. Have the groups lay out how they will be using their researched information in their projects.
  4. Allow time for the groups to complete their projects.

Session 5

Have the groups present their completed projects to the class.

Differentiated Learning Options

  • Provide assembled facts about Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War for students to work from.
  • Allow students to work with a scribe.
  • Allow students to choose from pre-selected fresco designs to paint.

Enrichments/Extensions

  • Take photos of the students’ frescoes and assemble a photo album either in a book or on a CD for students to check out and bring home to show their parents.
  • Invite other classes to come and visit the fresco art gallery.
  • Take anecdotal notes about the students’ participation in class discussions.
  • Evaluate the students’ worksheets for understanding of the lesson objectives
There are no related resources for this lesson plan.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.2 Language
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.2.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Use collective nouns (e.g., group).
    • Form and use frequently occurring irregular plural nouns (e.g., feet, children, teeth, mice, fish).
    • Use reflexive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves)
    • Form and use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs (e.g., sat, hid, told).
    • Use adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.
    • Produce, expand, and rearrange complete simple and compound sentences (e.g., The boy watched the movie; The little boy watched the movie; The action movie was watched by the little boy).
  • L.2.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Capitalize holidays, product names, and geographic names.
    • Use commas in greetings and closings of letters.
    • Use an apostrophe to form contractions and frequently occurring possessives.
    • Generalize learned spelling patterns when writing words (e.g., cage --> badge; boy --> boil).
    • Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.3 Language
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.3.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Explain the function of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in general and their functions in particular sentences.
    • Form and use regular and irregular plural nouns.
    • Use abstract nouns (e.g., childhood).
    • Form and use regular and irregular verbs.
    • Form and use the simple (e.g., I walked; I walk; I will walk) verb tenses.
    • Ensure subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement.
    • Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.
    • Use coordinating and subordinating conjunctions.
    • Produce simple, compound, and complex sentences.
  • L.3.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Capitalize appropriate words in titles.
    • Use commas in addresses.
    • Use commas and quotation marks in dialogue.
    • Form and use possessives.
    • Use conventional spelling for high-frequency and other studied words and for adding suffixes to base words (e.g., sitting, smiled, cries, happiness).
    • Use spelling patterns and generalizations (e.g., word families, position-based spellings, syllable patterns, ending rules, meaningful word parts) in writing words.
    • Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.2 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RI.2.1. Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.
  • RI.2.2. Identify the main topic of a multi-paragraph text as well as the focus of specific paragraphs within the text.
  • RI.2.3. Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text. 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.2 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RI.2.7. Explain how specific images (e.g., a diagram showing how a machine works) contribute to and clarify a text.
  • RI.2.8. Describe how reasons support specific points the author makes in a text.
  • RI.2.9. Compare and contrast the most important points presented by two texts on the same topic.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.2 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RI.2.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 2 topic or subject area.
  • RI.2.5. Know and use various text features (e.g., captions, bold print, subheadings, glossaries, indexes, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text efficiently.
  • RI.2.6. Identify the main purpose of a text, including what the author wants to answer, explain, or describe.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.3 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RI.3.4. Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 3 topic or subject area.
  • RI.3.5. Use text features and search tools (e.g., key words, sidebars, hyperlinks) to locate information relevant to a given topic efficiently.
  • RI.3.6. Distinguish their own point of view from that of the author of a text.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.3 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RI.3.7. Use information gained from illustrations (e.g., maps, photographs) and the words in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text (e.g., where, when, why, and how key events occur).
  • RI.3.8. Describe the logical connection between particular sentences and paragraphs in a text (e.g., comparison, cause/effect, first/second/third in a sequence).
  • RI.3.9. Compare and contrast the most important points and key details presented in two texts on the same topic.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.3 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RI.3.1. Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.
  • RI.3.2. Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea.
  • RI.3.3. Describe the relationship between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.2 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.2.7. Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., read a number of books on a single topic to produce a report; record science observations).
  • W.2.8. Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
  • W.2.9. begins in grade 4.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.3 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.3.7. Conduct short research projects that build knowledge about a topic.
  • W.3.8. Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories.
  • W.3.9. begins in grade 4.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.3 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Production and Distribution of Writing
Standards:

  • W.3.4. With guidance and support from adults, produce writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task and purpose. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3.)
  • W.3.5. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grade 3.)
  • W.3.6. With guidance and support from adults, use technology to produce and publish writing (using keyboarding skills) as well as to interact and collaborate with others.

Discipline: Visual Arts and Music
Domain: K-4 Visual Arts
Cluster: Standard 6: Making connections between visual arts and other disciplines
Grade(s): Grades K–4
Standards:

  • Students understand and use similarities and differences between characteristics of the visual arts and other arts disciplines
  • Students identify connections between the visual arts and other disciplines in the curriculum

Discipline: Visual Arts and Music
Domain: K-4 Visual Arts
Cluster: Standard 1: Understanding and applying media, techniques, and processes
Grade(s): Grades K–4
Standards:

  • Students know the differences between materials, techniques, and processes
  • Students describe how different materials, techniques, and processes cause different responses
  • Students use different media, techniques, and processes to communicate ideas, experiences, and stories
  • Students use art materials and tools in a safe and responsible manner