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An Introduction to Coins

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Summary

Early elementary students will examine the features and values of pennies, nickels, and dimes. This lesson is part of the Unit Plan “Common Cents.”

Coin Type(s)

  • Cent
  • Nickel
  • Dime

Coin Program(s)

  • Generic

Objectives

  • Students will examine different coins and identify their characteristics and value.
  • Students will place coins in order according to value.

Major Subject Area Connections

  • Math

Minor/supporting Subject Area Connections

  • Language Arts
  • Science
  • Social Studies

Grades

  • Kindergarten
  • First grade
  • Second grade

Class Time

Sessions: One
Session Length: 30-45 minutes
Total Length: 0-45 minutes

Groupings

  • Whole group
  • Individual work

Terms and Concepts

  • Coins
  • Dime
  • Money
  • Nickel
  • Penny
  • Value

Materials

  • For each student: 1 mint or cough drop tin
  • 10 pennies, 5 nickels, and 5 dimes (real) for each tin
  • Large paper coins (for whole class instruction)
  1. Start this lesson by placing a handful of coins in a spot where all the children can see them. Ask your students what they see. Continue the discussion by asking what we use coins for, whether they ever use coins, and when they have used coins.
  2. Explain that over the next few days they will be looking closely at coins to learn how to use them correctly.
  3. Give each student a box of coins with the stipulation that the boxes stay closed until all directions are given. Also inform them that all the coins and boxes MUST remain in their work area (floor or desk) at all times. When they use the coins, they should take out only the number of coins they will need to do the problem.
  4. Distribute the boxes of coins, each with 10 pennies, 5 nickels, and 5 dimes.
  5. Show the students a penny.  Have them each take a penny out of the box and look at it.
  6. Ask several questions and chart their responses on a web graphic organizer.
    • What is this coin is called?
    • Just by looking at the coin, what can you tell me about it?
    • Whose face is on the coin?
    • What do you know about this person? (Build on this a little.)
    • For Lincoln Memorial cents:  Have you ever seen the building on the back of this coin (reverse)?  What is this building called?
    • For shield cents:  Do you know what that object is? What is a shield used for?
    • Does this coin have writing on it? What does it say?
    • What does “Liberty” mean? Why might this coin say “Liberty” on it?
  7. Direct their attention to where the coin says “One Cent” and explain that every coin has a value. Write "value" on the board and see if the students know what the word means.
  8. Have your students put the penny back in the box and take out a nickel to examine.
  9. Ask similar questions as asked in step 6, and chart the responses on a new web. See if your students can find the value of the nickel. If a penny is worth 1 cent, and a nickel is worth 5 cents, how many pennies equal a nickel?
  10. Have your students put the nickel back in the box and take out a dime to examine.
  11. Ask similar questions as asked in step 6, and chart the responses on a new web. Mention that there is a memorial to FDR in Washington, DC, but it is not on the reverse. What is on the coin’s reverse instead? See if your students can find the value of the dime. If a penny is worth one cent, and a dime is worth 10 cents, how many pennies equal a dime?
  12. Review the values of each coin and ask which coin has the greatest value? Which has the least value? Which is the largest coin? Which is the smallest coin? Does it matter which coin is biggest in size? Why or why not?
  13. Have the students lay out all their dimes in a row and count them. How many do they have?
  14. Now, have the students take out the rest of their coins and continue the row by placing the coins in order of the ones with the greatest value to the ones with the least value. What comes after dimes? How many nickels do they have? What comes after nickels? How many pennies do they have?
  15. As a class, count the value of all the pennies (1,2,3…10 cents). Do the same thing with nickels (5,10,15…25 cents) and dimes (10,20,30…50 cents).
  16. Discuss the fact that even though there are more pennies than dimes in the box, the dimes are worth much more than the pennies. And even though there are the same number of nickels and dimes, the dimes are worth more money than the nickels.

Differentiated Learning Options

To follow up this activity, give the students a homemade worksheet where they have to cut out and match the fronts and backs of the different coins. Have them paste their coin pairs onto a blank piece of paper and write the coin’s value by each pair, then check their answers with a partner.

Use the students' participation in the discussion, ability to differentiate between the coins and organize them, understanding of the meaning of "value," and learning of the value of each coin to assess whether they have met the lesson objectives.

This lesson plan is not associated with any Common Core Standards.

Discipline: Mathematics
Domain: K-2 Number and Operations
Cluster: Understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems.
Grade(s): Grades K–2
Standards:

In K through grade 2 all students should

  • count with understanding and recognize "how many" in sets of objects;
  • use multiple models to develop initial understandings of place value and the base-ten number system;
  • develop understanding of the relative position and magnitude of whole numbers and of ordinal and cardinal numbers and their connections;
  • develop a sense of whole numbers and represent and use them in flexible ways, including relating, composing, and decomposing numbers;
  • connect number words and numerals to the quantities they represent, using various physical models and representations; and
  • understand and represent commonly used fractions, such as 1/4, 1/3, and 1/2.

Discipline: Mathematics
Domain: All Communication
Cluster: Instructional programs from kindergarten through grade 12 should enable all students to
Grade(s): Grades K–2
Standards:

  • organize and consolidate their mathematical thinking through communication 
  • communicate their mathematical thinking coherently and clearly to peers, teachers, and others;
  • analyze and evaluate the mathematical thinking and strategies of others; and
  • use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas precisely.   

Discipline: Mathematics
Domain: All Connections
Cluster: Instructional programs from kindergarten through grade 12 should enable all students to
Grade(s): Grades K–2
Standards:

  • Recognize and use connections among mathematical ideas
  • Understand how mathematical ideas interconnect and build on one another to produce a coherent whole
  • Recognize and apply mathematics in contexts outside of mathematics

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Effective Communication
Grade(s): Grades K–2
Standards:

  • Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes.

Discipline: Science
Domain: K-4 Content Standards
Cluster: Science as Inquiry
Grade(s): Grades K–2
Standards:

  • Ability necessary to do scientific inquiry
  • Understand scientific inquiry

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Individuals, Groups, and Institutions
Grade(s): Grades K–2
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • help learners understand the concepts of role, status, and social class and use them in describing the connections and interactions of individuals, groups, and institutions in society
  • help learners analyze groups and evaluate the influences of institutions, people, events, and cultures in both historical and contemporary settings
  • help learners to understand the various forms institutions take, their functions, their relationships to one another and how they develop and change over time
  • assist learners in identifying and analyzing examples of tensions between expressions of individuality and efforts of groups and institutions to promote social conformity
  • help learners to describe and examine belief systems basic to specific traditions and laws in contemporary and historical societies
  • challenge learners to evaluate the role of institutions in furthering both continuity and change
  • guide learner analysis of the extent to which groups and institutions meet individual needs and promote the common good in contemporary and historical settings
  • assist learners as they explain and apply ideas and modes of inquiry drawn from the behavioral sciences in the examination of persistent social issues and problems

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: People, Places, and Environment
Grade(s): Grades K–2
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • Enable learners to use, interpret, and distinguish various representations of Earth such as maps, globes, and photographs, and to use appropriate geographic tools
  • Encourage learners to construct, use, and refine maps and mental maps, calculate distance, scale, area, and density, and organize information about people, places, regions, and environments in a spatial context
  • Help learners to locate, distinguish, and describe the relationships among varying regional and global patterns of physical systems such as landforms, climate, and natural resources, and explain changes in the physical systems
  • Guide learners in exploring characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth’s surface
  • Have learners describe how people create places that reflect culture, human needs, current values and ideals, and government policies
  • Provide opportunities for learners to examine, interpret, and analyze interactions of human beings and their physical environments, and to observe and analyze social and economic effects of environmental changes, both positive and negative
  • Challenge learners to consider, compare, and evaluate existing uses of resources and land in communities, regions, countries, and the world
  • Direct learners to explore ways in which Earth’s physical features have changed over time, and describe and assess ways historical events have influenced and been influenced by physical and human geographic features