Encountering Hospitality

Summary

Examining interactions between Lewis and Clark and Native Americans.

Coin Type(s)

  • Dollar

Coin Program(s)

  • Native American $1 Coins

Objectives

Students will identify and describe the interactions between the Lewis and Clark Expedition and Native American tribes. Students will collaboratively develop and deliver a presentation.

Major Subject Area Connections

  • Social Studies
  • Language Arts
  • Technology
  • Art

Grades

  • 4th
  • 5th
  • 6th

Class Time

  • Sessions: Four
  • Session Length: 45-60 minutes
  • Total Length: 151-500 minutes

    Groupings

    • Whole group
    • Small groups
    • Pairs
    • Individual work

    Background Knowledge

    Students should have a basic knowledge of:

    • Native Americans
    • Westward expansion
    • Map skills
    • Internet-based research
    • Citing sources

    Terms and Concepts

    • Native American One Dollar Coin
    • Reverse (back)
    • Obverse (front)
    • Hospitality
    • Logistical Support
    • Mandan, Hidatsa, Clatsop, Nez Perce, and Chinook tribes
    • Lewis and Clark Expedition

    Materials

    • 1 overhead projector or equivalent technology
    • 1 overhead transparency (or photocopy) of each of the following:
      • "2014 Native American $1 Coin" page
      • "Lewis and Clark Expedition Map" worksheet
      • "Ready to Read" worksheet
    • Copies of the following:
    • Chart paper
    • Markers
    • 1 copy of an age-appropriate text or excerpt that gives information about Native American culture, such as:
      • Meet Lydia: A Native Girl from Southeast Alaska by Miranda Belarde-Lewis
      • Lewis and Clark Through Indian Eyes: Nine Indian Writers on the Legacy of the Expedition by Alvin M. Josephy, Jr.
      • When the Rain Sings: Poems by Young Native Americans by the National Museum of the American Indian
    • 1 copy of an age-appropriate text that gives basic information about the Lewis and Clark Expedition, such as:
      • The Great Expedition of Lewis and Clark: By Private Reubin Field, Member of the Corps of Discovery by Judith Edwards
      • Lewis and Clark: Legacies, Memories, and New Perspectives by Kris Fresonke and Mark Spence
      • The Lewis and Clark Expedition (True Books: Westward Expansion) by John Perritano
      • How We Crossed The West: The Adventures of Lewis and Clark by Rosalyn Schanzer
    • Computers or tablet devices with Internet access
    • Poster board
    • Large map of the United States of America displaying names and dates of Native American tribes Lewis and Clark encountered
    • Tape

    Preparations

    Worksheets

    Worksheets and files (PDF)

    Lesson Steps

    Session 1

    1. Describe the Native American $1 Coin Program for background information. The program is described at www.usmint.gov/kids/coinNews/nativeAmerican/.
    2. Display the "2014 Native American $1 Coin" overhead transparency or photocopy. Tell the students that the front of a coin is called the "obverse" and the back is called the "reverse." Ask the students to share their ideas about the image on the coin’s reverse. Examine the coin design with the students and identify the 2014 theme "Native Hospitality Ensured the Success of the Lewis and Clark Expedition." Ask the students to identify the images on the coin and consider what each part of the coin design might represent.
    3. Distribute the "Ready to Read" worksheet to each student. Review the directions together. Have the students complete Part 1 of the sheet individually, recording their true or false guesses in the "Before Reading" column.
    4. Introduce the students to the selected text about the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Remind the students that they should be listening carefully to confirm or revise their statements on the "Ready to Read" worksheet. Read the selected text to the class and attend to any unfamiliar vocabulary.
    5. Ask the students to complete the "After Reading" column of the "Ready to Read" worksheet. Display the "Ready to Read" overhead transparency or photocopy. Review the statements as a class and discuss whether each statement is true or false based on information provided in the text. If desired, have the students show "thumbs up" or "thumbs down" to collectively gauge responses to each statement.
    6. Ask the students to rewrite each of the false statements on the bottom of the "Ready to Read" worksheet, making each statement correct. Have the students share and check their revised sentences with a partner.
    7. Lead a discussion about the trip’s objectives and mission. Discuss the rationale for the three main goals of the expedition: to study the plants, animals, and land; to form relationships with Native American tribes; and to search for a water route to the Pacific Ocean.
    8. Display the "Lewis and Clark Map" and identify Lewis and Clark’s route and the Native American tribes they encountered along the way.
    9. Discuss Native American tribes Lewis and Clark encountered and details of their culture during the time of the Lewis and Clark Expedition.
    10. Note any questions the students have that may be answered through research in a later session.

    Session 2

    1. Review information about the Lewis and Clark Expedition from Session 1. Review the "Ready to Read" worksheet. Display the map of the United States and review Lewis and Clark’s route.
    2. Write the word "hospitality" on a piece of chart paper. Discuss the term and develop a definition. Write the definition on the chart.
    3. Dividing the class into pairs of students, have them discuss times when they have displayed hospitality to someone else or experienced hospitality themselves.
    4. Ask the students to share examples with the class and record examples on the chart paper.
    5. Display the "2014 Native American $1 Coin" overhead transparency. Ask the students to consider the many ways that Native Americans showed hospitality towards the Lewis and Clark Expedition, including the examples featured on the coin image and in the text from the previous session. Lead the students to understand that each Native American tribe displayed hospitality in different ways, such as providing friendship, food and supplies, and logistical support. "Logistical support" refers to equipment, personnel, information, or facilities that support a group’s mission and objectives.
    6. Divide the class into small groups. If you make five groups, assign each group one of the following five tribes: Mandan, Hidatsa, Clatsop, Nez Perce, and Chinook, each of which acted in hospitable ways towards the Lewis and Clark Expedition. To make smaller groups, you could assign each tribe to two groups (10 groups altogether).
    7. Distribute a copy of the "Encountering Hospitality" worksheet to each student. Review the directions together. Ask the students to complete the worksheet individually, though they will work in small groups to conduct their research.
    8. Using computers or tablet devices, allow time for the students to explore texts and suggested Web sites that give information about each of these tribes and their experiences with the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Remind the students to record their findings on the "Encountering Hospitality" worksheet.

    Sessions 3 and 4

    1. Review information and address questions about the Lewis and Clark Expedition and Native American hospitality from Sessions 1 and 2.
    2. Distribute the "Encountering Hospitality" rubric to the students. Review the expectations for this project and answer student questions. Explain that this rubric will be used to assess all 3 parts of the project: the researching findings recorded on the "Encountering Hospitality" worksheet, the poster, and the oral presentation.
    3. Allow time for the student groups to complete their research and finish the "Encountering Hospitality" worksheet.
    4. Provide each group with a piece of poster board and markers. Ask the groups to create a colorful visual to use in their presentation. The visual should depict the ways that the specific Native American tribe they researched showed hospitality towards Lewis and Clark.
    5. Provide time for student groups to discuss and plan their oral presentation. Ask each group to plan a 3- to 5-minute presentation. The presentation should detail the interactions and acts of hospitality that occurred between Lewis and Clark and the Native American tribe they researched. Encourage groups to practice their presentation.
    6. Encourage the students to figure out the chronological order in which Lewis and Clark encountered each tribe on their expedition and present their research findings in this order. Have each group share their oral presentation and poster with the class.
    7. Ask the students to place their posters on the board in chronological order as well, creating an illustrated timeline of encounters between Lewis and Clark and Native American tribes.
    8. Ask the students to add other key events and details from the expedition to the illustrated timeline.
    9. Lead a discussion about the ways that Native American tribes encountered and showed hospitality toward the expedition. Guide the students to compare and contrast the posters that the groups created to represent the tribes studied. Ask the students to consider the impact of the expedition on the tribes as well as the tribes on the expedition.
    10. Distribute the "All-American Hospitality" exit slip. Allow time for the students to write a response to the question.

    Differentiated Learning Options

    • Allow students to work with a partner or scribe.
    • Allow students extended time to complete work.
    • Allow students to type their research findings on a computer.
    • Allow students to create their illustration on a computer.
    • Allow groups to complete one "Encountering Hospitality" worksheet together.

    Enrichments/Extensions

    • Have students write journal entries or letters from the perspective of Lewis and Clark or a Native American from the tribe that they studied. Encourage the students to weave historical facts into their narratives, detailing their perspective on the interactions between the explorers and the tribe.
    • Have students map the journey of Lewis and Clark and identify additional Native American tribes that encountered the expedition. Ask the students to conduct research on these tribes to learn more about how tribes interacted with the expedition.
    • Have students learn more about Lewis and Clark’s encounters with Native American tribes with the 2005 Westward Journey Nickel Series lesson plan "Where Indians and Bison Meet".

    Assess

    • Use the attached rubric and exit slip to evaluate the students’ participation and learning.
    • Take anecdotal notes about the students’ participation in class discussions and group activity.

    Common Core Standards

    Discipline: Language Arts
    Domain: SL.4 Speaking and Listening
    Grade(s): Grade 4
    Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
    Standards:

    • SL.4.1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
      • Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
      • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
      • Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of others.
      • Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.
    • SL.4.2. Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
    • SL.4.3. Identify the reasons and evidence a speaker provides to support particular points. 

    Discipline: Language Arts
    Domain: SL.4 Speaking and Listening
    Grade(s): Grade 4
    Cluster: Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
    Standards:

    • SL.4.4. Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.
    • SL.4.5. Add audio recordings and visual displays to presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.
    • SL.4.6. Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion); use formal English when appropriate to task and situation. (See grade 4 Language standards 1 for specific expectations.)

    Discipline: Language Arts
    Domain: SL.6 Speaking and Listening
    Grade(s): Grade 4
    Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
    Standards:

    • SL.6.1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 6 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
      • Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
      • Follow rules for collegial discussions, set specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
      • Pose and respond to specific questions with elaboration and detail by making comments that contribute to the topic, text, or issue under discussion.
      • Review the key ideas expressed and demonstrate understanding of multiple perspectives through reflection and paraphrasing.
    • SL.6.2. Interpret information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and explain how it contributes to a topic, text, or issue under study.
    • SL.6.3. Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.

    Discipline: Language Arts
    Domain: RL.4 Reading: Informational Text
    Grade(s): Grade 4
    Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
    Standards:

    • RI.4.1. Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
    • RI.4.2. Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text.
    • RI.4.3. Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text.

    Discipline: Language Arts
    Domain: RL.5 Reading: Literature
    Grade(s): Grade 4
    Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
    Standards:

    • RL.5.1. Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
    • RL.5.2. Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text.
    • RL.5.3. Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., how characters interact).

    Discipline: Language Arts
    Domain: RL.6 Reading: Literature
    Grade(s): Grade 4
    Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
    Standards:

    • RL.6.1. Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
    • RL.6.2. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.
    • RL.6.3. Describe how a particular story’s or drama’s plot unfolds in a series of episodes as well as how the characters respond or change as the plot moves toward a resolution.

    National Standards

    Discipline: Social Studies
    Domain: All Thematic Standards
    Cluster: Individuals, Groups, and Institutions
    Grade(s): Grades K–12
    Standards:

    Teachers should:

    • help learners understand the concepts of role, status, and social class and use them in describing the connections and interactions of individuals, groups, and institutions in society
    • help learners analyze groups and evaluate the influences of institutions, people, events, and cultures in both historical and contemporary settings
    • help learners to understand the various forms institutions take, their functions, their relationships to one another and how they develop and change over time
    • assist learners in identifying and analyzing examples of tensions between expressions of individuality and efforts of groups and institutions to promote social conformity
    • help learners to describe and examine belief systems basic to specific traditions and laws in contemporary and historical societies
    • challenge learners to evaluate the role of institutions in furthering both continuity and change
    • guide learner analysis of the extent to which groups and institutions meet individual needs and promote the common good in contemporary and historical settings
    • assist learners as they explain and apply ideas and modes of inquiry drawn from the behavioral sciences in the examination of persistent social issues and problems

    Discipline: Visual Arts and Music
    Domain: 5-8 Visual Arts
    Cluster: Standard 3: Choosing and evaluating a range of subject matter, symbols, and ideas
    Grade(s): Grades K–12
    Standards:

    • Students integrate visual, spatial, and temporal concepts with content to communicate intended meaning in their artworks
    • Students use subjects, themes, and symbols that demonstrate knowledge of contexts, values, and aesthetics that communicate intended meaning in artworks