## Summary

Students will demonstrate an understanding of addition and subtraction. Students will demonstrate an understanding of number sentences and number stories.

## Coin Type(s)

- Quarter

## Coin Program(s)

- America the Beautiful Quarters

## Objectives

- Students will demonstrate an understanding of addition and subtraction.
- Students will demonstrate an understanding of number sentences and number stories.

## Major Subject Area Connections

- Math
- Language Arts

## Grades

- K
- 1st

## Class Time

- Sessions: Three
- Session Length: 20-30 minutes
- Total Length: 46-90 minutes

## Groupings

- Whole group
- Pairs
- Individual work

## Background Knowledge

Students should have a basic knowledge of:

- Numbers
- Addition
- Subtraction

## Terms and Concepts

- Quarter
- Obverse (front)
- Reverse (back)
- Great Smoky Mountains National Park
- Number sentences
- Number stories
- Operation
- "All together"
- "How many are left"
- "In all"

## Materials

- 1 overhead projector or equivalent technology (optional)
- 1 overhead transparency (or photocopy) of each of the following:
- "Great Smoky Mountain National Park Quarter" page
- "Adding Up" worksheet
- "How Many Left?" worksheet
- "Operation: Log Cabin" worksheet

- Copies of the following:
- "Great Smoky Mountains National Park Quarter" page
- "Adding Up" worksheet
- "How Many Left?" worksheet
- "Operation: Log Cabin" worksheet

- 1 copy of an age-appropriate text on addition, such as:
*The Mission of Addition*by Brian P. Cleary*Mission Addition*by Loreen Leedy*Domino Addition*by Lynette Long*If You Were A Plus Sign*by Trisha Speed Shaskan

- 1 copy of an age-appropriate text on subtraction, such as:
*The Action of Subtraction*by Brian P. Cleary*Subtraction Action*by Loreen Leedy*If You Were A Minus Sign*by Trisha Speed Shaskan

- 1 class map of the United States
- Class chart of math terms
- Chart paper
- Markers
- Pencils
- Scissors

## Preparations

- Make an overhead transparency or equivalent of each of the following:
- "Great Smoky Mountain National Park Quarter" page
- "Adding Up" worksheet
- "How Many Left?" worksheet
- "Operation: Log Cabin" worksheet

- Make copies of each of the following:
- "Great Smoky Mountain National Park Quarter" page (1 per student)
- "Adding Up" worksheet (1 per student)
- "How Many Left?" worksheet (1 per student)
- "Operation: Log Cabin" worksheet (1 per student)

- Locate a text that gives basic information on addition (see examples under "Materials").
- Locate a text that gives basic information on subtraction (see examples under "Materials").
- Develop example number stories for demonstration.
- Create a class chart of math terms, such as: "how many are left," "all together" and "in all."

## Worksheets

Worksheets and files (PDF)

## Lesson Steps

### Session 1

- Display and examine the "Great Smoky Mountain National Park Quarter" page. Locate this site on a class map. Note its position in relation to your school's location.
- Explain to the students that the United States Mint began to issue the quarters in the America the Beautiful Quarters® Program in 2010. By the time the program ends in 2021, there will be a total of 56 quarter designs. Each design will focus on a different national site—one from each state, territory and the District of Columbia.
- Tell the students that the front of a coin is called the "obverse" and the back is called the "reverse." Ask the students to share their ideas about the image on the quarter's reverse. If necessary, explain that the image depicts a historic log cabin found in the national park as well as a forest with a hawk circling above. Explain to the students that the Great Smoky Mountains are among the oldest in the world, between 200 million and 300 million years old—older than dinosaurs!
- Have the students count the images that they see on the coin.
- Introduce the students to a text on addition. Preview the text and illustrations and allow students to generate observations about addition.
- Read the text. During the reading, attend to any unfamiliar vocabulary.
- After the reading, discuss the elements of addition. Review the definition of addition as finding the total of two or more numbers. Give some examples and ask the students to share their own examples.
- As a class, discuss number sentences and give the students some examples to solve (such as "three pencils plus four pencils equals…"). Encourage the students to share their own number sentences and record them on a class chart for the class to solve.
- Display the "Adding Up" worksheet. Have the students create and solve their own number sentences using addition.
- Allow time for the students to complete the assignment. Have them share with the class.

### Session 2

- Review the previous session's worksheets and charts and display the image of the coin.
- Introduce the students to a text on subtraction. Preview the text and illustrations and allow the students to generate observations about subtraction.
- Read the text. During the reading, attend to any unfamiliar vocabulary.
- After the reading, discuss the elements of subtraction. Review the definition of subtraction as taking a number away from another. Give some examples and ask the students to share their own examples.
- As a class, discuss number sentences and give the students some examples to solve (such as "five carrots minus three carrots equals…"). Encourage the students to share their own number sentences and record them on a class chart for the class to solve.
- Display the "How Many Left?" worksheet. Have the students create and solve their own number sentences.
- Allow time for the students to complete the assignment. Have them share with the class.

### Session 3

- Review the charts and worksheets from the previous sessions and display the image of the coin.
- Examine the image. As a class, count the number of logs in the cabin, logs in one fence, windows, hawks and poles in the porch and record them on a class chart.
- Use this list to tell the students some number stories. For example: "I used 13 logs to build my fence. Three logs cracked. How many logs do I still have left?" Tell the students they need to be sure to pay attention to whether they need to use addition or subtraction.
- Distribute a copy of the "Operation: Log Cabin" worksheet to each student. Tell the students they will be working in pairs with the worksheets to create and write down a number story for each other to solve.
- Have them cut out the images on the second page and use them as manipulatives to create their number stories. Then have each student solve their partner's story.
- Allow time for the students to complete the assignment. Have them share with the class. Collect the worksheets.

## Differentiated Learning Options

- Allow students to work in pairs.
- Allow students to use a scribe to complete their worksheets.
- Allow students to use pictures to illustrate their number stories.

## Enrichments/Extensions

- Have students research another coin image, such as the 2012 El Yunque quarter at /kids/coinnews/atb/2012/elyunque.html and write their own number stories based on that image.
- Have students write number stories about the coin image using multiplication and division.
- Have students write number stories using other coin images from the America the Beautiful Quarters® Program at www.usmint.gov/kids/coinNews/atb/.
- Have students use other coin images from the America the Beautiful Quarters Program at www.usmint.gov/kids/coinNews/atb/ for their manipulatives.
- Have students work in pairs to write more number stories and solve their partners' stories.

## Assess

- Take anecdotal notes about the students' participation in class discussions.
- Evaluate the students' worksheets and rubric for understanding of the lesson objectives.

## Common Core Standards

**Discipline**: Language Arts

**Domain**: L.K Language

**Grade(s)**: Grade K

**Cluster**: Conventions of Standard English

**Standards**:

**L.K.1.**Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.- Print many upper- and lowercase letters.
- Use frequently occurring nouns and verbs.
- Form regular plural nouns orally by adding /s/ or /es/ (e.g., dog, dogs; wish, wishes).
- Understand and use question words (interrogatives) (e.g., who, what, where, when, why, how).
- Use the most frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., to, from, in, out, on, off, for, of, by, with).
- Produce and expand complete sentences in shared language activities.

**L.K.2.**Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.- Capitalize the first word in a sentence and the pronoun I.
- Recognize and name end punctuation.
- Write a letter or letters for most consonant and short-vowel sounds (phonemes).
- Spell simple words phonetically, drawing on knowledge of sound-letter relationships.

**Discipline**: Math

**Domain**: K.OA Operations and Algebraic Thinking

**Grade(s)**: Grade K

**Cluster**: Understand addition as putting together and adding to, and understand subtraction as taking apart and taking from

**Standards**:

**K.OA.1.**Represent addition and subtraction with objects, fingers, mental images, drawings, sounds (eg, claps), acting out situations, verbal explanations, expressions or equations.**K.OA.2.**Solve addition and subtraction word problems, and add and subtract within 10, eg, by using objects or drawings to represent the problem.**K.OA.3.**Decompose numbers less than or equal to 10 into pairs in more than one way, eg, by using objects or drawings, and record each decomposition by a drawing or equation (eg, 5 = 2 & 3 and 5 = 4 + 1).**K.OA.4.**For any number from 1 to 9, find the number that makes 10 when added to the given number, eg, by using objects or drawings, and record the answer with a drawing or equation.**K.OA.5.**Fluently add and subtract within 5.

## National Standards

**Discipline**: Mathematics

**Domain**: K-2 Number and Operations

**Cluster**: Understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems.

**Grade(s)**: Grades K–2

**Standards**:

In K through grade 2 all students should

- count with understanding and recognize "how many" in sets of objects;
- use multiple models to develop initial understandings of place value and the base-ten number system;
- develop understanding of the relative position and magnitude of whole numbers and of ordinal and cardinal numbers and their connections;
- develop a sense of whole numbers and represent and use them in flexible ways, including relating, composing, and decomposing numbers;
- connect number words and numerals to the quantities they represent, using various physical models and representations; and
- understand and represent commonly used fractions, such as 1/4, 1/3, and 1/2.

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