## Summary

The student will determine the probability of a given event using concreteexamples. Students will describe events using terms such as likely, unlikely, certain, and impossible. The student will convert fractions to decimals, decimals to percents, and percents to fractions.

## Objectives

- The student will determine the probability of a given event using concrete examples. Students will describe events using terms such as "likely," "unlikely," "certain," and "impossible."
- The student will convert fractions to decimals, decimals to percents, and percents to fractions.

## Subject Area

- Math

## Grades

- 4th
- 5th
- 6th

## Class Time

- Total Time: 46-90 minutes

## Materials

- Several bags with eight (8) quarters (each can use real coins or cut out coins from the "Reproducible Coin Sheets,"):
- One (1) eagle quarter, from pre-1999
- Five (5) quarters from 1999
- Two (2) quarters from 2000

- Paper
- Pencil
- Calculator (optional)
- "Take a Chance" worksheets, one per student

## Lesson Steps

- Introduce the activity by asking students if they have ever played a game involving chance. What is another name for "chance"? What does the word "probability" mean?
- Discuss various games and determine if they involve chance or strategy.
- Discuss terms on board. Define as a class.
- Pass out bags of quarters (real or paper) and the "Take a Chance" worksheets. Students may work in groups or as a whole class depending on teacher preference. Have students examine the contents of the bags.
- Review the process for changing fractions to decimals, decimals to percents, and percents to fractions.
- As a warm-up, have students determine the probability of pulling the eagle quarter out of the bag. Have students write the outcome as a fraction (1/8).
- Students will complete the "Take a Chance" worksheets.
- Check worksheet answers for accuracy. Quiz students on concepts learned to verify understanding.

## Assess

Use the worksheets and class participation to assess whether the students have met the lesson objectives.

## Common Core Standards

**Discipline**: Math

**Domain**: 4.MD Measurement and Data

**Grade(s)**: Grade 4

**Cluster**: Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit

**Standards**:

**4.MD.1.**Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including km, m, cm, kg, g, lb, oz, l, ml, hr, min and sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Record measurement equivalents in a two column table.- For example, know that 1ft is 12 times as long as 1in. Express the length of a 4ft snake as 48in. Generate a conversion table for feet and inches listing the number pairs (1, 12), (2, 24), (3, 36), ...

**4.MD.2.**Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale.**4.MD.3.**Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real world and mathematical problems. For example, find the width of a rectangular room given the area of the flooring and the length, by viewing the area formula as a multiplication equation with an unknown factor.

## National Standards

**Discipline**: Mathematics

**Domain**: All Problem Solving

**Cluster**: Instructional programs from kindergarten through grade 12 should enable all students to

**Grade(s)**: Grades K–12

**Standards**:

- Build new mathematical knowledge through problem solving
- Solve problems that arise in mathematics and in other contexts
- Apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies to solve problems
- Monitor and reflect on the process of mathematical problem solving

**Discipline**: Mathematics

**Domain**: 6-8 Data Analysis and Probability

**Cluster**: Understand and apply basic concepts of probability.

**Grade(s)**: Grades K–12

**Standards**: In grades 6–8 all students should

- understand and use appropriate terminology to describe complementary and mutually exclusive events;
- use proportionality and a basic understanding of probability to make and test conjectures about the results of experiments and simulations; and
- compute probabilities for simple compound events, using such methods as organized lists, tree diagrams, and area models.

**Discipline**: Mathematics

**Domain**: 3-5 Data Analysis and Probability

**Cluster**: Understand and apply basic concepts of probability.

**Grade(s)**: Grades K–12

**Standards**: In grades 3–5 all students should

- describe events as likely or unlikely and discuss the degree of likelihood using such words as certain, equally likely, and impossible;
- predict the probability of outcomes of simple experiments and test the predictions; and
- understand that the measure of the likelihood of an event can be represented by a number from 0 to 1.

**Discipline**: Mathematics

**Domain**: 3-5 Number and Operations

**Cluster**: Understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems.

**Grade(s)**: Grades K–12

**Standards**: In grades 3–5 all students should

- understand the place-value structure of the base-ten number system and be able to represent and compare whole numbers and decimals;
- recognize equivalent representations for the same number and generate them by decomposing and composing numbers;
- develop understanding of fractions as parts of unit wholes, as parts of a collection, as locations on number lines, and as divisions of whole numbers;
- use models, benchmarks, and equivalent forms to judge the size of fractions;
- recognize and generate equivalent forms of commonly used fractions, decimals, and percents;
- explore numbers less than 0 by extending the number line and through familiar applications; and
- describe classes of numbers according to characteristics such as the nature of their factors.

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