## Summary

Students will explain the meanings of spending and earning and associate the correct mathematical function with each one. Students will also make change up to a dollar.

## Objectives

- Students will explain the meanings of spending and earning and associate the correct mathematical function with each one.
- Students will also make change up to a dollar.

## Subject Area

- Math

## Grades

- 2nd
- 3rd

## Class Time

- Total Time: 0-45 minutes

## Materials

- Chalkboard or chart paper
- Chalk or markers
- Copies of the "Circulating Coin Images," "A Wallet's Worth," "Coin Counter,", and "Earning and Spending Scenarios" pages
- Lunch trays
- Scissors

## Background Knowledge

Students should have a basic knowledge of:

- Coin denominations
- Addition
- Subtraction
- Skip counting (or multiplication)

## Lesson Steps

- Briefly review with your students the worth of each coin (penny, nickel, dime, quarter).
- Discuss with students the idea of earning and spending. Explain to students that by earning money, you are making more and by spending money, you will have less.
- Ask students to pretend with you for a moment. Inform them that they have money in their wallets. Then, they earn some by performing household chores. Ask students how they would figure out how much money they had total. Guide students to respond that they will have to ADD the two amounts together and that will be their total money. Write on the board: EARN = ADD.
- On the overhead projector, have a student model the following problem using the cutouts from the "Circulating Coin Images" page. Ask: "If I have 10 cents and I earn 25 cents, how much money do I have?"
- Invite the student to manipulate the images on the overhead projector, showing that they have 35 cents because they earned money.
- Have students pretend that they have money in their pocket and then they spend some on ice cream in the school cafeteria. Ask them how they could determine how much money they have left after purchasing the ice cream. Guide students to respond that they will have to subtract the spent money from their wallet money to find out their total money. Write on the board: SPEND = SUBTRACT.
- On the overhead projector, have a student model the following problem using the cutouts from the "Circulating Coin Images" page. Ask: "If I have 80 cents and I spend 10 cents, how much money do I have?"
- Invite the student to manipulate the images on the overhead projector, showing that they now have 70 cents because they spent money, which means they subtracted 10 from 80.
- Separate the class into pairs and distribute to each pair one tray and one "Circulating Coin Images" page.
- Have students cut out the images of the coins and sort them into piles according to value.
- Distribute one "A Wallet's Worth" chart, one "Coin Counter" (double-sided) page, and one "Earning and Spending Scenarios" page to each pair.
- Explain to students that they are going to be pretending with coins. Instruct students to decide which student in the pair will be the counter and which one will be the banker. Remind students that they can take turns with each role. Explain to students that the banker will use the "A Wallet's Worth" chart and the counter will use the "Coin Counter" page.
- Display the first scenario on the "Earning and Spending Scenarios" overhead transparency. Using the overhead transparency of the "A Wallet's Worth" chart and the "Coin Counter" page, model this example for the students. Students should follow along on their respective charts.
- Guide students through the rest of the examples using the "Earning and Spending Scenarios" overhead transparency.
- In order to check students' comprehension, review each situation using the overhead transparencies for the "A Wallet's Worth" chart and the "Coin Counters" page.
- Ask pairs how much money they had left over at the end of the game. Guide students to respond that they had 5 cents left over.

## Differentiated Learning Options

- Identify struggling students when circulating throughout the classroom. Assign these students the role of "banker." Using the manipulatives will help them understand the mathematical function they are performing.
- If appropriate, provide struggling students with calculators.

## Assess

Use the worksheets and class participation to assess whether the students have met the lesson objectives.

## Common Core Standards

**Discipline**: Math

**Domain**: 2.OA Operations and Algebraic Thinking

**Grade(s)**: Grade 2

**Cluster**: Add and subtract within 20

**Standards**:

- 2.OA.2. Solve word problems that call for addition of three whole numbers whose sum is less than or equal to 20, eg, by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

## National Standards

**Discipline**: Mathematics

**Domain**: K-2 Number and Operations

**Cluster**: Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates.

**Grade(s)**: Grades K–2

**Standards**: In K through grade 2 all students should

- develop and use strategies for whole-number computations, with a focus on addition and subtraction;
- develop fluency with basic number combinations for addition and subtraction; and
- use a variety of methods and tools to compute, including objects, mental computation, estimation, paper and pencil, and calculators.

**Discipline**: Mathematics

**Domain**: All Problem Solving

**Cluster**: Instructional programs from kindergarten through grade 12 should enable all students to

**Grade(s)**: Grades K–2

**Standards**:

- Build new mathematical knowledge through problem solving
- Solve problems that arise in mathematics and in other contexts
- Apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies to solve problems
- Monitor and reflect on the process of mathematical problem solving

**Discipline**: Mathematics

**Domain**: All Communication

**Cluster**: Instructional programs from kindergarten through grade 12 should enable all students to

**Grade(s)**: Grades K–2

**Standards**:

- organize and consolidate their mathematical thinking through communication
- communicate their mathematical thinking coherently and clearly to peers, teachers, and others;
- analyze and evaluate the mathematical thinking and strategies of others; and
- use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas precisely.

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