Crafting Cause and Effect

Summary

Students will be able to describe the significance of George Rogers Clark's journey and capture of Fort Sackville. The students will explain cause and effect with regards to how Clark's victory paved the way for Lewis and Clark's journey west.

Coin Type(s)

  • Quarter

Coin Program(s)

  • America the Beautiful Quarters

Objectives

Students will be able to describe the significance of George Rogers Clark's journey and capture of Fort Sackville. The students will write an essay explaining cause and effect.

Major Subject Area Connections

  • Social Studies
  • Language Arts

Grades

  • 9th
  • 10th
  • 11th
  • 12th

Class Time

  • Sessions: Three
  • Session Length: 45-60 minutes
  • Total Length: 121-150 minutes

    Groupings

    • Whole group
    • Individual work

    Background Knowledge

    Students should have a basic knowledge of The Revolutionary War and Lewis and Clark.

    Terms and Concepts

    • Quarter
    • Reverse (back)
    • Obverse (front)
    • Cause and Effect

    Materials

    Preparations

    • Make an overhead transparency (or equivalent) of the following:
      • George Rogers Clark National Historical Park Quarter
    • Make copies of the following:
      • George Rogers Clark National Historical Park Quarter
    • "Crafting Cause and Effect" Essay Question and Rubric" (one per student)

    Worksheets

    Lesson Steps

    1. Locate the George Rogers Clark National Historical Park on a class map. Note its position in relation to your school's location.
    2. As background information, explain to the students that the United States Mint began to issue the quarters in the America the Beautiful Quarters® Program in 2010. By the time the program ends in 2021, there will be a total of 56 designs. Each design will focus on a different national site—one from each state, territory and the District of Columbia.
    3. Display and examine the "George Rogers Clark National Historical Park" page
    4. Tell the students that the front of a coin is called the "obverse" and the back is called the "reverse." Ask students to read the inscriptions on the image of the coin's reverse.
    5. Ask the class what information may be inferred from the inscriptions. As students make their inferences, list them on the board or chart paper. Student responses should include that the George Rogers Clark National Historical Park is located in Vincennes, Indiana; that this must be an important location in United States history since it is inscribed on United States currency; and that "E Pluribus Unum" means "Out of Many, One."
    6. Explain that the image on the reverse design features George Rogers Clark leading his men through the flooded plains approaching Fort Sackville.
    7. Using sources listed in "preparation," go through the journey of George Rogers Clark. Include images, texts and other documents for reference.
    8. Lead a class discussion about cause and effect. Ask students to share examples of cause and effect they see every day (for example, a traffic light's signals). Ask students to name one example of cause and effect in George Rogers Clark's journey.
    9. Tell the students that analyzing cause and effect is a way to understand history. Give some other examples of historical cause and effect, such as the U.S. moon landing.
    10. Tell the students that tomorrow they will write an essay demonstrating their knowledge of cause and effect with regards to George Rogers Clark and the exploration of the West.
    11. Distribute the "Crafting Cause and Effect Essay Question and Rubric."  Review the essay question and rubric with students.
    12. Allow time for the students to write the first draft of their essays. Provide individual assistance as needed.
    13. Allow time for peer editing and feedback.
    14. Have the students write the final version of their essay.
    15. Have the students fill in the self-assessment on their rubric. Collect the rubrics and essays.

    Differentiated Learning Options

    • Have students use a scribe for the essay.
    • Have students work in pairs.

    Enrichments/Extensions

    • Have students compare and contrast to another historical event.
    • Have students do a multimedia presentation.

    Assess

    • Note participation in class discussions.
    • Use the essay and rubric to evaluate whether the students meet the lesson objectives.

    Common Core Standards

    Discipline: Language Arts
    Domain: RL.11-12 Reading: Literature
    Grade(s): Grades 11– 12 
    Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
    Standards:

    • 11-12.1.Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.
    • 11-12.2.Determine two or more themes or central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to produce a complex account; provide an objective summary of the text.
    • 11-12.3.Analyze the impact of the author's choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is ordered, how the characters are introduced and developed).

    Discipline: Language Arts
    Domain: W.11-12 Writing
    Grade(s): Grades 11– 12 
    Cluster: Text Types and Purposes
    Standards:

    • 11-12.1.Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. 
      • Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons and evidence.
      • Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience's knowledge level, concerns, values and possible biases.
      • Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
      • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
      • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
    • 11-12.2.Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization and analysis of content. 
      • Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables) and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
      • Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations or other information and examples appropriate to the audience's knowledge of the topic.
      • Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
      • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.
      • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
      • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
    • 11-12.3.Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details and well-structured event sequences. 
      • Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation or observation, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
      • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events and/or characters.
      • Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole and build toward a particular tone and outcome (e.g., a sense of mystery, suspense, growth or resolution).
      • Use precise words and phrases, telling details and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting and/or characters.
      • Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed or resolved over the course of the narrative.

    National Standards

    Discipline: Social Studies
    Domain: All Thematic Standards
    Cluster: Time, Continuity, and Change
    Grade(s): Grades K–12 
    Standards:

    Teachers should:

    • assist learners to understand that historical knowledge and the concept of time are socially influenced constructions that lead historians to be selective in the questions they seek to answer and the evidence they use
    • help learners apply key concepts such as time, chronology, causality, change, conflict, and complexity to explain, analyze, and show connections among patterns of historical change and continuity
    • enable learners to identify and describe significant historical periods and patterns of change within and across cultures, including but not limited to, the development of ancient cultures and civilizations, the emergence of religious belief systems, the rise of nation-states, and social, economic, and political revolutions
    • guide learners in using such processes of critical historical inquiry to reconstruct and interpret the past, such as using a variety of sources and checking their credibility, validating and weighing evidence for claims, searching for causality, and distinguishing between events and developments that are significant and those that are inconsequential
    • provide learners with opportunities to investigate, interpret, and analyze multiple historical and contemporary viewpoints within and across cultures related to important events, recurring dilemmas, and persistent issues, while employing empathy, skepticism, and critical judgment; and enable learners to apply ideas, theories, and modes of historical inquiry to analyze historical and contemporary developments, and to inform and evaluate actions concerning public policy issues.