What Relief?

Summary

Students will analyze and illustrate the development of sandstone formations over time. Students will create relief maps that show the development of the formations. Students will analyze the differences in the geographical formation of northern and southern Illinois.

Coin Type(s)

  • Quarter

Coin Program(s)

  • America the Beautiful Quarters

Objectives

Students will analyze and illustrate the development of sandstone formations over time. Students will create relief maps that show the development of the formations. Students will analyze the differences in the geographical formation of northern and southern Illinois.

Major Subject Area Connections

  • Social Studies
  • Language Arts
  • Science

Grades

  • 7th
  • 8th

Class Time

  • Sessions: Four
  • Session Length: 45-60 minutes
  • Total Length: 151-500 minutes

Groupings

  • Whole group
  • Small groups
  • Individual work

Background Knowledge

Students should have a basic knowledge of:

  • Maps
  • Weathering
  • Erosion
  • Rock Cycle
  • Glaciers

Terms and Concepts

  • Quarter
  • Obverse (front)
  • Reverse (back)
  • Shawnee National Forest
  • Relief Map
  • Elevation

Materials

  • 1 overhead projector or equivalent technology (optional)
  • 1 overhead transparency (or photocopy) of  "Shawnee National Forest Quarter Reverse" page
  •  Copies of the following:
    • "Camel Rock Jigsaw - Sandstone" worksheet
    • "Camel Rock Jigsaw – Weathering and Erosion" worksheet
    • "Camel Rock Jigsaw – Relief Maps" worksheet
    • "Camel Rock Exit Slip"
    • "How Camel Rock Formed" sequence chain
    • "Shawnee National Forest Rubric"
    • "Shawnee National Forest Exit Slip"
  • 1 class map of the United States
  • 1 relief map of Illinois
  • 1 Guam Quarter (or copy of the reverse)
  • Locate age-appropriate texts that contain information on rocks and minerals
  • Locate age-appropriate texts that contain information on weathering and erosion
  • Locate age-appropriate texts that contain information on maps
  • Locate age-appropriate texts that contain information on glaciers
  • Locate photos of different parts of Illinois to show different landforms and features
  • Chart paper, whiteboard, or interactive whiteboard
  • Computers with Internet access

Preparations

  • Make an overhead transparency (or photocopy) of the "Shawnee National Forest Quarter Reverse" page
  • Make copies of each of the following:
    • "Camel Rock Jigsaw - Sandstone" chart (1 per 3 students)
    • "Camel Rock Jigsaw – Weathering and Erosion" worksheet (1 per 3 students)
    • "Camel Rock Jigsaw – Relief Maps" worksheet (1 per 3 students)
    • "Camel Rock Exit Slip" (1 per student)
    • "How Camel Rock Formed" sequence chain (1 per student)
    • "Shawnee National Forest Relief Map Rubric" (1 per student)
    • "Shawnee National Forest Exit Slip" (1 per student)
  • Locate age appropriate texts that contain information on rocks (see examples under "Materials").
  • Locate age appropriate texts that contain information on weathering and erosion (see examples under "Materials").
  • Locate age-appropriate texts that contain information on maps (see examples under "Materials").
  • Locate age-appropriate texts that contain information on glaciers (see examples under "Materials").
  • Arrange to use the school computer lab for two to four sessions.
  • Bookmark Internet sites that contain information about sandstone
  • Bookmark Internet sites that contain information about weathering and erosion
  • Bookmark Internet sites that contain information about  maps
  • Bookmark the USDA Forest Service Web site for information on the formation of Camel Rock at http://www.fs.usda.gov/recarea/shawnee/recreation/hiking/recarea/?recid=10685&actid=50 
  • Bookmark the Arches National Park website for images of the sandstone arches at http://www.nps.gov/arch/learn/photosmultimedia/index.htm.

Worksheets

Worksheets and files (PDF)

Lesson Steps

Session 1

  1. Display and examine the "Shawnee National Forest Quarter Reverse" page. Locate this site on a class map.  Note its position in relation to your school's location.  As background information, explain to the students that the United States Mint began to issue the quarters in the America the Beautiful Quarters® Program in 2010. By the time the program ends in 2021, there will be a total of 56 designs on the back of the coin. Each design will focus on a different national site—one from each state, territory and the District of Columbia.
  2. Describe the America the Beautiful Quarters® Program for background information.  Tell the students that the back of a coin is called the "reverse" and "obverse" is another name for the front.  Locate each of this year's sites on a class map.  Answer any student questions.
  3. Display the image of the "Shawnee National Forest Quarter Reverse" page.  With the students, examine the coin design. Have the students identify the images included in this design.  Display or read the coin image description at /learn/coin-and-medal-programs/america-the-beautiful-quarters.
  4. Display the Arches National Park website at http://www.nps.gov/arch/learn/photosmultimedia/index.htm. Show examples of arches. Ask the students if they have ever made a sculpture. Ask the students what materials they might use to build the sculpture. Record student responses on chart paper. Lead a discussion of the possible composition of the arches. Ask the students if they have heard of sandstone. Record student responses on chart paper.
  5. Ask the students if they know how the arches were formed. Record student responses on chart paper.
  6. Display the actual Guam quarter or image of the reverse. Lead a discussion on the coin and the features on the reverse. Ask the students about the different types of maps and what information can be displayed on a map. Record student responses on chart paper. Explain to the students that the map of Guam on the coin reverse is a relief map. Display the Illinois relief map. Ask the students about the information displayed on the map. Record student responses. Lead the students to conclude that a relief map shows elevation using colors.
  7. Divide the students into groups of 3. Distribute the "Camel Rock Jigsaw" sheets. Assign different students different topics to ensure that all three topics are researched in each group. Review the directions with the students.
  8. Have the students use the computer lab (or similar technology) or selected texts to complete the research.
  9. When the students have finished their research, have the students share their findings within their group. Then have the groups share with the class. Have the students record information on the chart paper.
  10. Lead a class discussion on the effects of weathering and erosion. Review the properties of sandstone. Lead a class discussion on what would make sandstone an easy stone to weather and erode as opposed to granite.
  11. Lead a class discussion on Camel Rock and how it may have formed.
  12. Distribute the "Camel Rock Exit Slip" and allow students time to complete. Collect the slips.

Session 2 and 3

  1. Review chart paper from previous session. Explain to the students that they will be working in groups of four researching the formation of Camel Rock. They will then be creating four relief maps to show the changes over the period of time. Distribute the "How Camel Rock Formed" sequence chain. Review the directions with the students. Emphasize that the students must write a short summary to accompany each map.
  2. Have the students use the computer lab (or use similar technology) or selected texts to complete the research.
  3. Distribute the "Shawnee National Forest Relief Maps Rubric." Review the rubric with the students.
  4. Allow the students sufficient time to create their maps and labels.
  5. Have the students complete the rubric. Display student work.

Session 4

  1. Review the maps from the previous sessions.
  2. Display a relief map of Illinois. Lead a class discussion on the geography of the state. Display the photos of Illinois showing the different parts of the state. Lead the students to conclude that the northern and the southern parts of the state are different. Remind the students that Shawnee National Forest is in the southern part.
  3. Lead a class discussion on possible causes for the differences. Record student responses on chart paper.
  4. Review the "How Camel Rock Formed" sequence chain. Review the fourth step in the sequence. Read selections from selected text on glaciers, emphasizing the effects glaciers have on the land. Review the relief map of Illinois. Distribute the "Shawnee National Forest Exit Slip" and provide the  students time to complete the Exit Slip

Differentiated Learning Options

  • Allow students to work in pairs to complete the research.
  • Provide audio or video versions of information for the student research.
  • Assign roles when the students are working in groups of four.

Enrichments/Extensions

  • Have students create an interactive map using mapping software or websites.
  • Have students create a multimedia presentation of the formation of Camel Rock or showing the geologic differences between the north and south parts of Illinois.
  • Have students research other formations in the Shawnee National Park that are similar or that are different to Camel Rock.
  • Have the students complete the "A Delicate Arch: Arches National Park" lesson plan
  • Have the students research a geologic site near their school and compare to Camel Rock.

Assess

  • Use the "Camel Rock Exit Slip" to assess student understanding of weathering and erosion and relief maps.
  • Use the "Shawnee National Forest Relief Maps Rubric" and the "Shawnee National Forest Exit Slip" to assess student understanding of weathering, erosion, and the formation of Camel Rock.

Common Core Standards

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.6 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 6
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RI.6.7. Integrate information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words to develop a coherent understanding of a topic or issue.
  • RI.6.8. Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.
  • RI.6.9. Compare and contrast one author’s presentation of events with that of another (e.g., a memoir written by and a biography on the same person).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.6 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 6
Cluster: Text Types and Purposes
Standards:

  • W.6.1. Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
    • Introduce claim(s) and organize the reasons and evidence clearly.
    • Support claim(s) with clear reasons and relevant evidence, using credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
    • Use words, phrases, and clauses to clarify the relationships among claim(s) and reasons.
    • Establish and maintain a formal style.
    • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the argument presented.
  • W.6.2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.
    • Introduce a topic; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
    • Use appropriate transitions to clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
    • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
    • Establish and maintain a formal style.
    • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the information or explanation presented.
  • W.6.3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.
    • Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
    • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
    • Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another.
    • Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to convey experiences and events.
    • Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.

National Standards

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: People, Places, and Environment
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • Enable learners to use, interpret, and distinguish various representations of Earth such as maps, globes, and photographs, and to use appropriate geographic tools
  • Encourage learners to construct, use, and refine maps and mental maps, calculate distance, scale, area, and density, and organize information about people, places, regions, and environments in a spatial context
  • Help learners to locate, distinguish, and describe the relationships among varying regional and global patterns of physical systems such as landforms, climate, and natural resources, and explain changes in the physical systems
  • Guide learners in exploring characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth’s surface
  • Have learners describe how people create places that reflect culture, human needs, current values and ideals, and government policies
  • Provide opportunities for learners to examine, interpret, and analyze interactions of human beings and their physical environments, and to observe and analyze social and economic effects of environmental changes, both positive and negative
  • Challenge learners to consider, compare, and evaluate existing uses of resources and land in communities, regions, countries, and the world
  • Direct learners to explore ways in which Earth’s physical features have changed over time, and describe and assess ways historical events have influenced and been influenced by physical and human geographic features

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Disciplinary Standards
Cluster: Geography
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • guide learners in the use of maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • enable learners to use mental maps to organize information about people, places, and environments in a spatial context
  • assist learners to analyze the spatial information about people, places, and environments on Earth’s surface
  • help learners to understand the physical and human characteristics of places
  • assist learners in developing the concept of regions as a means to interpret Earth’s complexity
  • enable learners to understand how culture and experience influence people’s perceptions of places and regions
  • provide learners opportunities to understand and analyze the physical processes that shape Earth’s surface
  • challenge learners to consider the characteristics and spatial distribution of ecosystems on Earth’s surface
  • guide learners in exploring the characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth’s surface
  • help learners to understand and analyze the characteristics, distribution, and complexity of Earth’s cultural mosaics
  • have learners explore the patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth’s surface
  • enable learners to describe the processes, patterns, and functions of human settlement
  • challenge learners to examine how the forces of cooperation and conflict among people influence the division and control of Earth’s surface; help learners see how human actions modify the physical environment
  • enable learners to analyze how physical systems affect human systems
  • challenge learners to examine the changes that occur in the meaning, use, distribution, and importance of resources
  • help learners to apply geography to interpret the past and present and to plan for the future
  • enhance learners’ abilities to ask questions and to acquire, organize, and analyze geographic information so they can answer geographic questions as they engage in the study of substantive geographic content